Residential Energy Auditing and Improvement

Residential Energy Auditing and Improvement


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Residential Energy Auditing and Improvement by Stan Harbuck, Donna Harbuck

This book is for energy auditors or retrofitters, whether they work in the weatherization program or in the private arena, and is intended to help them prepare for several certifications. These include programs with BPI, RESNET-HERS, DOE/NREL, and AEE (Association of Energy Engineers). The material in this book contains industry procedures and techniques and is intended to be an educational resource. Topics covered include the house as a system, the auditor’s tools, weatherization, sealants, insulation and barriers, retrofitting, heating and cooling, baseload, and new construction. A number of additional appendices are included to provide the reader with valuable information in the performance of a residential energy audit.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781482244625
Publisher: Fairmont Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 06/06/2014
Pages: 640
Product dimensions: 6.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.90(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

History of Energy Auditing and Retrofitting 1

Mission of WAP 3

Chapter 2 Eergy Basics 5

The Concept of Energy 5

The Thermodynamic Laws 6

Relationship of Energy to Heat 8

Temperature, Work, and Power 8

Phase Change 10

Heat Transfer 14

Other Pertinent Energy Basics 28

Heating System/Furnace Basics 33

Cooling Units-The Air-Conditioning Process 41

Insulation and R-Values 43

Chapter 3 House As a System 45

Whole House 45

Components of the House 48

The Effect of Air on the House System 50

The Effect of Water on the House System 59

Comfort and Climate 67

Pollutants 70

Whole House Fans 72

Comfort, Safety, and Efficiency 73

Chapter 4 The Auditor's Tools and How to Use Them 75

Typical Tools 75

Blower Doors 79

Minimum Ventilation Requirement (MVR) 94

Home Setup and Preparation for Blower Door 97

Measuring Exhaust Fan Flow 113

Duct Tests 118

Zone Pressure Diagnostics 146

Advanced ZPD Tests that Estimate Leakage Flow and Hole Size 156

Levels of and Standards for ZPD Testing 160

Infrared Thermometers and Thermography 178

Chapter 5 WeatherizationRequirements and Similarities in the Private Arena 187

Deferral of Services 187

Acceptable Measures 188

Savings to Investment Ratio in the Weatherization Program 189

Payback of Retrofits in the Private Arena 191

Authorization for Weatherization Work 192

Repairs 193

Health and Safety 193

Priorities in the Private Arena 194

Accepted Home Energy Designations 194

Chapter 6 Sealants, Insulation and Barriers and How to Install Them 197

Retrofit Materials 197

Insulation 199

Factors Affecting Thermal Performance of Insulation 214

Radon 218

Vapor Barriers 218

Chapter 7 Auditing, Planning, and Retrofitting 221

Work Flow Sequence 221

Auditing and Retiofitting 224

Exterior 226

Evaluating Interiors 229

Space Heaters 230

Reducing Moisture in the Home 231

Air Sealing 233

Walls 235

Attics 251

Special Situations in Attics and Basements 264

Attic Ventilation 273

Enclosed and Covered Ceilings Below Roofs 280

Roofs 286

Floors 288

Windows and Doors 290

Furnace Ducts 298

Other Special Issues in Air Leakage 306

Basement and Crawl Spaces 312

Special Topics 326

Plumbing and Mechanical 332

Strategies for Different Types of Homes 332

Chapter 8 Work Order Development by the Auditor 345

First Step in Work Order Development 347

Second Step in Work Order Development 348

Third Step in Work Order Development 351

Chapter 9 Heating and Cooling 353

Various Types of Heating Units 353

Items Common to Both Oil- and Gas-Fired Units 358

Distribution System and Controls 361

Other Heating Units 368

Steam Heating Systems 378

Electric Resistance Heating 383

Combustion Appliances-Background 388

Inspection and Testing 388

Conducting Worst-case Testing 404

Unvented Appliances 436

Testing Efficiency of Combustion Appliances 436

Possible Repairs 438

Cooling Measures 439

Heat Pumps 446

Evaporative Cooling or "Swamp" Cooler Systems 449

Unit (Window) Air Conditioners 452

Heat Gain in the Summer 452

Sizing Air Conditioners 453

Air Conditioner Efficiency Ratings 453

Moisture Removal Capacity 455

Heat Pump Efficiency Ratings 455

Weatherization Recommendations 456

Applying Shading 457

Cooling System Cleaning 460

Renewable Energy 464

Chapter 10 Baseload and How to Improve It 469

Modifications to Improve Baseload Measures 469

Finding the Baseload 470

Energy Usage Level of Appliances 473

Refrigerators 475

Dryer Vents 480

Water Heating 481

Lighting 487

Other Baseload Issues 489

Water Savings 490

Chapter 11 New Construction Energy Evaluations 491

Code 491

RESNET Ratings 492

Measuring and Sketching Building Dimensions 496

Reading Building Plans 498

Ethics and Disclosure 502

Real Estate Financing 502

Identification and Documentation of Features of the Rated Home 503

Quality Assurance 504

Cooling and Heating Design Tradeoffs 505

Reference Home 507

Projected and Confirmed Ratings 507

Energy Code Compliance 507

The Energy Star Program of the EPA 507

Determining Building Orientation 509

Passive House Program 509

Chapter 12 Building Professional Training and Certification 511

The Association of Energy Engineers 512

AEE Certification 512

Continuing Education Programs 513

Appendix A Weatherization Standards 515

Appendix B Math Basics 515

Appendix C Conversion Tables/Charts 523

Appendix E Using a Psychrometric Chart 537

Appendix F Special Weatherization Calculations 547

Appendix G R-Values and Benefits in Reality 550

Intrusion and Wind Washing 550

The Effect of Framing on R-Value 550

The Effect of Windows and Doors 552

Appendix H Insulation Versus Air Sealing 555

Calculating Envelope Energy Loss 555

Effects of a 7% Void in Insulation 562

Appendix I Estimating Insulation Requirements 564

In Attics 564

In Walls 566

Appendix J DOE Major U.S. Climate Zones and Climate Data for Select Cities 569

Appendix K Meter Reading 572

Appendix L Refrigerant Charge Testing 575

Appendix M Certifications in the Home Energy Arena 577


Certifications (difficulty of achieving) 579

Appendix N Energy Efficiency in ACs and Heat Pumps 586

Appendix O Multi-point Blower Door Pressure Testing 587

Appendix P Utility Bill Interpretation 591

Appendix Q PHB Passive House 593

Appendix R Zone Pressure Diagnostic (ZPD) Calculations 595

Open-a-Door Tests 595

Open-a-Door Chart 597

Open-a-Hatch or Add-a-Hole Test 601

Appendix S Safety Items on Combustion Appliances 606

Glossary 609

Index 637

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