That residues of pesticide and other "foreign" chemicals in food stuffs are of concern to everyone everywhere is amply attested by the reception accorded previous volumes of "Residue Reviews" and by the gratifying enthusiasm, sincerity, and efforts shown by all the in dividuals from whom manuscripts have been solicited. Despite much propaganda to the contrary, there can never be any serious question that pest-control chemicals and food-additive chemicals are essential to adequate food production, manufacture, marketing, and storage, yet without continuing surveillance and intelligent control some of those that persist in our foodstuffs could at times conceivably endanger the public health. Ensuring safety-in-use of these many chemicals is a dynamic challenge, for established ones are continually being dis placed by newly developed ones more acceptable to food tech nologists, pharmacologists, toxicologists, and changing pest-control requirements in progressive food-producing economies. These matters are of genuine concern to increasing numbers of governmental agencies and legislative bodies around the world, for some of these chemicals have resulted in a few mishaps from improper use. Adequate safety-in-use evaluations of any of these chemicals per sisting into our foodstuffs are not simple matters, and they incorporate the considered judgments of many individuals highly trained in a variety of complex biological, chemical, food technological, medical, pharmacological, and toxicological disciplines.
Table of ContentsPesticide photodecomposition.- Experimental approaches to pesticide photodecomposition.- Photochemical degradation products of pentachlorophenol.- Herbicide metabolism and mode of action.- Reactions of pesticides in soils.- Activation and inactivation of herbicides by higher plants.- Role of RNA metabolism in the action of auxin-herbicides.- Mode-of-action of photosynthesis inhibitor herbicides.- Fungicide mode of action.- The strategy of finding fungicides.- Mode of action of agricultural antibiotics developed in Japan.- The fungitoxic mechanisms in quinoline compounds and their chelates.- On the fungicidal action of phenylmercuric compounds.- Fungicidal action of organophosphorus compounds.- Pentachlorobenzyl alcohol, a rice blast control agent.- Insecticide metabolism and mode of action.- Radiotracer studies on metabolism, degradation, and mode of action of insecticide chemicals.- Mode of action of natural insecticides.- Selective toxicity of systemic insecticides.- Specificity and mechanism in the action of saligenin cyclic phosphorus esters.- Mechanisms of pesticide interactions in vertebrates.- The in vitro metabolism of organophosphorus insecticides by tissue homogenates from mammal and insect.- Mechanism of low toxicity of Sumithion toward mammals.- Comparative mechanisms of insecticide binding with nerve components of insects and mammals.- Mode of action of DDT and allethrin on nerve: Cellular and molecular mechanisms.- Biochemical genetics of insecticide resistance in the housefly.- Metabolism of strichnine nitrate applied for the control of the bear.- Physico-chemical approaches.- The correlation between physiological activity and physiochemical property of the substituted phenols.- Physico-organic chemical approach to the mode of action of organophosphorus insecticides.- Physico-chemical studies on the absorption of pesticides by the insect cuticle and penetration to the insect body.