This work will call into question the conclusions of historians of the last 200 years, about the ancient periods of time, and provide an alternative dating for those times. It is a World History in that it incorporates the ancient history of India, China, Japan, as well as the traditional Middle Eastern and European societies of ancient times. It re-evaluates the beginnings of civilization and the solar system, refuting common historical and scientific beliefs of the modern world. Documents that have previously been written off as Mythology have been re-evaluated as well, as they give a different perspective of ancient times and what happened back then. The use and creation of calendars is an important feature added to this work which is seldom taken into account by modern histories. Incorporated in this work are many of the more recent archaeological finds that have yet to be incorporated in status quo works and institutions. He makes no apology for the fact that this is Biblically based, and the conclusions that have been reached by this work fit very well in Biblical contexts and adds some understanding to the events that took place in the Biblical narratives.
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A Revised Chronology of the Bible
By Anthony Lyle
AuthorHouseCopyright © 2013 Anthony Lyle
All rights reserved.
Time and Calendars
1. Events relative to dates: Dates are relative to different societies. Each society has a calendar that they rely on for measuring time. It is with such calendars that people are able to relate events from the past and future. A business appointment has relative meaning to those who agree and need to be at the appointment, but is only valid if they agree on a date.
The problem with ancient history is there was no single calendar in which to base events. This seems to have been ignored by most modern historians. Very few history books even mention different calendars that were in effect at the time of ancient events. Adding to the problem, modern historians are determined to apply dates to an event before they have a relative understanding of where the event took place against other events. The 2nd dynasty of Egypt is placed between the 1st and 3rd, but the art work that has been found in this 2nd dynasty is vastly different than the art work of the 1st and 3rd, which happen to have very similar, almost exact art styles. This tells us that something is wrong with the placement and dating of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt.
Additionally, many calendars did not exist in ancient history. The Julian / Gregorian calendar didn't exist before 44 B.C. It was an adopted form of the Egyptian calendar, but James Ussher shows that the calendar of Rome at this time was riddled with errors and was off by as much as 8 to 12 months in some cases. Both calendars were used in Rome until Augustine made the Julian calendar the official calendar in 8 A.D.
Our modern historians apply proleptic or assumed dates to periods of time before the official start of the Julian calendar. This means that in 4000 B.C. Julian calendar did not really exist, but is assumed or calculated to have existed. These assumed dates have been applied to Western History books to give us some kind of reference for events that took place before the Roman Empire. This works well to give us some reference for events, but unfortunately, this does not work well when trying to match ancient non-existent dates to ancient calendars that did exist and were used for events of their time.
2. Measurements of Time: Everyone from the 5 year old kindergartener to the oldest adult knows that time is broken down into units; hours, days, weeks, etc. Many measurements are taken for granted, but some are more scientific.
1. Day: A day has been universally defined as one rotation of the earth causing a period of darkness and a period of light. Scientifically this can be further defined.
2. Hour: The day is further broken down into generally equal parts, and this is almost universally accepted to be an hour.
a. Western and Middle Eastern Hour: 60 minutes
i. According to Jason Retzer, Arabic nations use western definitions for an hour; i.e. minutes.
b. Hebrew Hour: 1080 Chalakim.
3. Week: Generally accepted to be equal to 7 days, but this wasn't and isn't always true.
4. Month: Definitions for the month vary from calendar to calendar. Some months are measured by lunar motion, but in our western calendars the month is an empirical measurement depending on the month. Empirical calendars are generally the same each year, so that the number of days of each month is stable.
5. Seasons: Usually fall climatic times of the year. Four seasons have been accepted by most societies. Ancient Egypt recognized only 3 seasons per year (with 4 months each).
6. Year: The year is based on the motion of the earth around the sun.
7. Yovel: This is a Biblical / Hebrew measurement of time, and consists of either 49 or 50 years.
8. Millennium: Considered to be 1000 years exactly.
9. Age: A period of time based between two major historical events so that the time between the events is called an age. This varies greatly and can't be defined into a set number of years or months.
10. Dispensation: Very much like an age, but based on more spiritual or religious definitions.
11. Olympic Game: This has varied over the years. At times it was believed to be 3 or 8 years, but more recently believed to have been a 4 year period after 700 B.C.
3. Day Count Systems: Historians have recognized the difficulty of matching dates between calendars. One method is to use day counting systems to match dates between calendars of different societies. The following are different systems for counting days over long periods of time for different calendar systems.
1. Julian Day Count (J.D): This system is probably the first known in the western world, and was devised by Joseph Scaliger. He named the system after his father, Julian Scaliger. By calculating known cycles of this time back to a beginning point, he identified January 1, 4713 B.C. as a date where all the cycles converged to a single date. This became the starting date for his system in the Julian calendar (November 24, 2712 B.C. in the Gregorian calendar). These starting dates are known as Epochs or the defined starting day for any given calendar. Almost all epochs are given in Gregorian or Julian dates.
2. Lillian Day Count (L.D): Pope Gregory decreed that the Julian calendar be corrected according to recommendations of many of his bishops. The official change took place on Oct 4, 1582 A.D. This date was changed to October 15, 1582 A.D. skipping 11 days. This date was recognized to be 2299160 (J.D.). This was the official start of the Gregorian calendar and became Day 1 of the Lillian Day count system.
3. Rata Dies Count (R.D.): This is a modern derivation of the Julian Day count created by Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz. They came to the same conclusion about the inaccuracy of algorithms over long time periods. They determined to decrease the error by cutting the time in half. They assigned January 1, 1 A.D. as the Epoch (Day 1) for their Rata Die system, equal to J.D. 1721425.5. The extra .5 is due to the fact that the start time of day for the Julian Day count is noon while the start time of day for the Rata Dies system is midnight.
4. Dies Torah Count (D.T.): This is a system derived from a Biblical day count system. Day 1 is the first day of creation, determined in this work to be equal to Mar 22, 3963 B.C. Day 1 of the D.T. system has been calculated to be 273685 J.D. or -1,447,340.5 R.D.
4. Time of day for day to start: Each culture starts their calendar day at different times of the day. For instance, the Hebrew calendar or culture starts their new day at dusk, or sundown. Ancient Egypt started their new day at sunrise. This makes a slight difference in date matching, but it can be very important if exact date matches are required.
5. Time of year for calendar new year to start: While not necessarily accepted by modern historians, ancient societies started the New Year for their calendars on the Spring Equinox.
Some historians believe that Ancient Egypt started their year with the Autumnal Equinox. Modern Hebrew historians believe that their ancestors started the calendar year in Tishrei, of the Autumnal season. The Bible (Torah) does not bear this out and even as late as Esther; the months are counted starting with Nissan of the spring season. This revised interpretation is that the season of war started in spring, and was considered to be the start of the New Year in ancient Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, Phoenicia, and Greece.
6. Number of Days in a Year: The ancient calendars had only 360 days in their calendars and this due to the fact that the earth, at that time, did revolve around the sun in 360 days. Archaeological finds have verified that every society before 750 B.C. had 360 day calendars, yet modern historians and astronomers have declared this a "mistake". Ancient astronomers were able to calculate pi to 10 decimal places without the use of any computer and yet, they are assumed to have mistaken the day count for each year by 5 days a year. Immanuel Velikovsky gives insurmountable proof of the ancient calendars consisting of 360 days per year.
The revolution of the earth changed around 715 B.C., (689 B.C. according to Velikovsky). Calendars around the world scrambled to change after this. Most of the modern calendars can be traced back to this time period. Modern historians attribute this sudden change to a "correction" of the calendars from previous errors.
7. Yovel Period: One of the most important time measurements in the consideration of the Plan of HaShem is the Yovel. This Jubilee period is 50 years long. Few western historians take this time measurement into consideration when considering Hebrew history and the interpretation of the historical cycles.
Many historians, including Hebrew historians believe the Yovel to be only 49 years long, but there is much reason to believe that the Yovel is actually supposed to be 50 years long. James Ussher, William Whiston, Joseph Scaliger, and Floyd Nolan Jones follow after the traditional mainstream Hebrew by interpreting a 49 year cycle. Josephus, Philo of Alexandria, and Eusebius all believed that the Yovel was a 50 year cycle. Rashi, a noted Jewish Sage and historian, believes it should be a 50 year cycle as well. This revised chronology takes the 50 year cycle interpretation based on the following Hebrew documents.
Excerpts 7a: Yovel definitions in Hebrew documentation:
Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:8-22 "Count off seven Sabbaths of years—seven times seven years—so that the seven Sabbaths of years amount to a period of forty-nine years. Then have the trumpet sounded everywhere on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the Day of Atonement sound the trumpet throughout your land. Consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee for you; each one of you is to return to his family property and each to his own clan. The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee for you; do not sow and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines. For it is a jubilee and is to be holy for you; eat only what is taken directly from the fields. In this Year of Jubilee everyone is to return to his own property. If you sell land to one of your countrymen or buy any from him, do not take advantage of each other. You are to buy from your countryman on the basis of the number of years since the Jubilee. And he is to sell to you on the basis of the number of years left for harvesting crops. When the years are many, you are to increase the price, and when the years are few, you are to decrease the price, because what he is really selling you is the number of crops. Do not take advantage of each other, but fear your God. I am HaShem your God. Follow my decrees and be careful to obey my laws, and you will live safely in the land. Then the land will yield its fruit, and you will eat your fill and live there in safety. You may ask, 'What will we eat in the seventh year if we do not plant or harvest our crops?' I will send you such a blessing in the sixth year that the land will yield enough for three years. While you plant during the eighth year, you will eat from the old crop and will continue to eat from it until the harvest of the ninth year comes in." (Italics mine)
The Talmud has this to say about the Yovel: "Therefore it says, it is a Jubilee to you, the fiftieth year, [to show that] you are to sanctify the fiftieth year, but not the fifty-first year." The Hizkuni believes that Sefira and Shavuot are somehow reminders for the really important mitzvoth: Shemita and Yovel. Every seventh year is considered a Shemita year, meaning that land in Eretz Ysrael may not be worked and that all debts owed by Jews to other Jews are canceled. Every fiftieth year is considered Yovel ("Jubilee"), meaning that all Jewish slaves are freed and that all land which has changed hands in the years since the last Yovel now returns to the hands of its original owner. What clues the Hizkuni in to the connection between Sefira/Shavuot and Shemita/Yovel? There are several likely possibilities
The Midrash also reports on the Yovel: "... count forty-nine days, and sanctify the fiftieth, just like Yovel (Sifra 167:8)." The Ramban emphasizes it further: "the number of days from the day of waving (the Omer offering) until Yom Tov (Shavuot) is as the number of years of the Shemita until the Yovel; the reasoning for both is identical." Thus, it behooves us to clarify this connection, and then to try to assimilate this understanding into our observance of the mitzvah of Sefiras HaOmer and preparation for Shavuot
The Talmud:Rosh Hashanah 9a And the Rabbis [— what do they make of these words]? — [They say]: You are to count the fiftieth year, but you are not to count the fifty-first, to exclude the view of R. Judah, who said that the fiftieth year is reckoned both ways. We are here told that this is not so. Rashi indicates that we count seven Shemita years and then we consecrate the fiftieth year. This fiftieth year is not the first year of the next cycle. Tosafot says: 'you are to count the fiftieth year (as fiftieth to the Jubilee), but you are not to count the fiftieth year as one (to the following septennate)'
Yechezkel (Ezekiel) 40:1: In the fifth year of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth of the month, in the fourteenth year after the fall of the city—on that very day the hand of HaShem was upon me and he took me there.
According to the Talmud, this was a jubilee year, while the Release years (Shemita) and Jubilee years did not commence until the land had been divided. The calculation is then as follows: The Temple was built four hundred and eighty years after the Shemoth (Exodus), which was four hundred and forty years after their entry into Eretz Israel. The Temple stood four hundred and ten years, making a total of eight hundred and fifty years from their entry until its destruction, which is the thirty-seventh Jubilee. Deducting fourteen years for conquest and division, as these did not count for Jubilee, we find that it was destroyed fourteen years before a Jubilee year, and therefore the fourteenth year after its destruction was a Jubilee year. (The Talmud deduces that this was a Jubilee year independently of this calculation.)
Arachin 13a According to the Midrash (Tehillim (Psalms) 90:4), "the Torah preceded the world by 2000 years." In accordance with the Torah command designating every fiftieth year to be Yovel (the jubilee year, in which farmers in Israel are forbidden to work the land), the 2000th year was the fortieth Yovel year. Thus, the first five days of creation were therefore the last five days of the fortieth Yovel year.
It is the premise in this revised chronology that HaShem intended for 2 Yovel counts. The first starts when Adam inhabits or possesses the land after leaving the Garden of Eden. This means that the first Yovel count applies to all mankind. The second only applies to Jewish history in particular. It begins sometime after Joshua leads the Israelites into Canaan to inhabit or possess the land of Israel. It becomes obvious why the Hebrew history does not enjoin the Adamic Yovel interpretation. To them the Yovel is defined by Jewish law as given to Moses on Mount Sinai. It was not defined before Moses, and so does not apply to goyim. The problem with their interpretation is that it would appear that Abraham and Jacob were both very aware of the laws long before they were given to Moses. This would imply that the laws were actually in effect before they were given in written form. This would then mean that the Yovel should be applied to the time when mankind first inhabited the land after it was given to Satan.
8. Introduction to Calendars: Time is under the control of the Creator, but the measurement of time comes from manmade tools; calendars. It is believed by most modern historians that during ancient time's calendars varied by type of calendar, but this is due to the fact that they hang on to the belief that the earth revolved around the sun in 365.2425 days. In ancient times, this belief was in error and the earth only took 360 days, exactly, to move around the sun in one year. All calendars were very much the same in different societies. Each month had 30 days and there were 12 months. The names of the months and days varied by the language, but that is the only real difference between ancient calendars of the Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Egyptians, and Mesopotamian calendars from the beginning to time until around 715 B.C.
William Whiston, "New Theory of the Earth", shows that the classic authors of the ancient world all supported the concept of a 360 day year. The "Nidana Sutra" of India gives exact calculations for the calendars of ancient India for a 360 day calendar. The "Arabhatiya" of India gives the same calculations. Corrections for the calendars of India were not made until after 700 B.C. The ancient calendars of Babylon and Assyria consisted of 360 days according to Immanuel Velikovsky, "Worlds in Collision". Cleobulus, of ancient Greece, defined a year of 360 days. This was later changed to add 5 days around 600 B.C. In Rome, Numa had to correct the calendar of Romulus to add 5 days to the Roman calendar. The "Canopus Decree" of ancient Egypt specifically states that the year consisted of 360 days. The "Eber Papyrus" from the traditional 18th Dynasty of Egypt gives the same calculations. The "Book of Sothis" of the Hyksos period of Egypt gives the same calculations as well. The extra 5 days, called Epagomenal days, were added after 700 B.C. In the west, the Mayans added 5 days to their calendar after 700 B.C. Even China had a calendar of 360 days that were modified after 700 B.C.
Excerpted from A Revised Chronology of the Bible by Anthony Lyle. Copyright © 2013 Anthony Lyle. Excerpted by permission of AuthorHouse.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Time and Calendars, 3,
Chapter 2 Pre-history, 13,
Chapter 3 Age of Creation, 15,
Chapter 4 Age of Adam, 23,
Chapter 5 Age of Cain, 25,
Chapter 6 Age of Noah, 32,
Chapter 7 Age of Nimrod or Age of Nations, 63,
Chapter 8 Times of the Jews, 82,
Chapter 9 Age of Promise, 106,
Chapter 10 Age of Law or Age of Moses, 161,
Chapter 11 Period of Judges and Hyksos, 185,
Chapter 12 Period of Kings, 218,
Chapter 13 The Second Great Babylonian Empire, 318,
Chapter 14 Persian Empire, 346,
Chapter 15 Roman Empire, 368,
Chapter 16 Age of Grace, 383,
Appendix I Paragraph Index, 393,
Appendix II Illustration Index, 405,
Word Index, 414,