ISBN-10:
1441946616
ISBN-13:
9781441946614
Pub. Date:
12/08/2010
Publisher:
Springer US
Robust Power System Frequency Control / Edition 1

Robust Power System Frequency Control / Edition 1

by Hassan Bevrani
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781441946614
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 12/08/2010
Series: Power Electronics and Power Systems
Edition description: Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2009
Pages: 226
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.36(d)

About the Author

Dr. H. Bevrani is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of Kurdistan, and Visiting Professor at Kyushu Institute of Technology in Japan.He was awarded his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, in 2004. His special fields of interest include intelligent and robust control applications in Power Systems and Power Electronics. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, and the author of 3 books, numerous chapters in contributed volumes, and over 150 papers in respected international journals and conference proceedings.

Table of Contents

1 Power System Control: An Overview 1

1.1 A Brief Historical Review 1

1.2 Instability Phenomena 2

1.3 Controls Configuration 5

1.4 Controls at Different Operating States 6

1.5 Dynamics and Control Timescales 7

1.6 Power System Frequency Control 8

1.6.1 Load-Frequency Control 8

1.6.2 Why Robust Power System Frequency Control? 9

1.7 Summary 11

References 11

2 Real Power Compensation and Frequency Control 15

2.1 Fundamental Frequency Control Loops 15

2.2 Frequency Response Modelling 16

2.3 Frequency Control in an Interconnected Power System 20

2.4 LFC Participation Factor 25

2.5 Frequency Operating Standards 26

2.6 A Literature Review on LFC Synthesis/Analysis 28

2.7 Summary 30

References 31

3 Frequency Response Characteristics and Dynamic Performance 39

3.1 Frequency Response Analysis 39

3.2 State-Space Dynamic Model 43

3.3 Frequency Control in a Deregulated Environment 44

3.4 LFC Dynamics and Bilateral Contacts 47

3.4.1 Modelling 47

3.4.2 Simulation Example 50

3.5 Physical Constraints 55

3.5.1 Generation Rate and Dead Band 55

3.5.2 Time Delays 56

3.5.3 Uncertainties 58

3.6 Summary 60

References 60

4 PI-Based Frequency Control Design 63

4.1 H&infinity;-SOF Control Design 64

4.1.1 Static Output Feedback Control 64

4.1.2 H&infinity;-SOF 64

4.2 Problem Formulation and Control Framework 66

4.2.1 Transformation from PI to SOF Control Problem 66

4.2.2 Control Framework 67

4.3 Iterative LMI Algorithm 69

4.3.1 Developed Algorithm 70

4.3.2 Weights Selection 71

4.4 Application Example 73

4.4.1 Case Study 73

4.4.2 Simulation Results 75

4.5 Using a Modified Controlled Output Vector 77

4.6 ConsideringBilateral Contracts 81

4.7 Summary 81

References 82

5 Frequency Regulation with Time Delays 85

5.1 Preliminaries 86

5.1.1 H&infinity; Control for Time-Delay Systems 86

5.1.2 LFC with Time Delays 87

5.2 Proposed Control Strategy 89

5.2.1 Problem Formulation 89

5.2.2 H&infinity;-SOF-Based LFC Design 90

5.2.3 Application to a Three-Control Area 92

5.3 Real-Time Laboratory Experiment 92

5.3.1 Analog Power System Simulator 92

5.3.2 Configuration of Study System 93

5.3.3 H&infinity;-SOF-Based PI Controller 96

5.4 Simulation Results 96

5.5 Summary 99

References 100

6 Multi-Objective Control-Based Frequency Regulation 103

6.1 Mixed H2/H&infinity;: Technical Background 104

6.2 Proposed Control Strategy 105

6.2.1 Multi-Objective PI-Based LFC Design 106

6.2.2 Modelling of Uncertainties 108

6.2.3 Developed ILMI 108

6.2.4 Weights Selection (μi, Wi) 110

6.2.5 Application to Three-Control Area 110

6.3 Discussion 110

6.4 Real-Time Laboratory Experiments 113

6.4.1 Configuration of Study System 113

6.4.2 PI Controller 114

6.5 Simulation Results 117

6.6 Summary 121

References 121

7 Agent-Based Robust Frequency Regulation 123

7.1 Frequency Response Analysis 124

7.1.1 Frequency Response Model 124

7.1.2 Total Power Imbalance Estimation 125

7.2 Proposed Control Strategy 126

7.2.1 Overall LFC Framework 126

7.2.2 Computing of Participation Factors 127

7.2.3 Structure of Two-Agent System 129

7.3 Tuning of PI Controller 130

7.4 Real-Time Implementation 132

7.4.1 Configuration of Study System 132

7.4.2 PI Parameters 133

7.4.3 Implementation 133

7.5 Laboratory Results 135

7.6 Remarks 136

7.7 Summary 138

References 139

8 Application of Structured Singular Values in LFC Design 141

8.1 Sequential Decentralized LFC Design 141

8.1.1 Model Description 142

8.1.2 Synthesis Procedure 143

8.1.3 Synthesis Steps 147

8.1.4 Application Example 1 148

8.1.5 Simulation Results 152

8.2 A Decentralized LFC Design 154

8.2.1 Synthesis Methodology 155

8.2.2 Application Example 2 157

8.2.3 Simulation Results 161

8.3 Summary 161

References 163

9 Frequency Control in Emergency Conditions 165

9.1 Frequency Response Model 165

9.1.1 Modelling 166

9.1.2 Considering of Emergency Control/Protection Dynamics 168

9.1.3 Simulation Example 169

9.2 Under-Frequency Load Shedding 174

9.2.1 Why Load Shedding? 174

9.2.2 A Brief Literature Review on UFLS 175

9.3 UFLS in Multi-Area Power Systems 177

9.3.1 On Targeted Load Shedding 177

9.3.2 A Centralized UFLS Scheme 179

9.3.3 Targeted Load Shedding Using Frequency Rate Change 180

9.3.4 Simulation Example 183

9.4 Remarks 186

9.5 Summary 187

References 187

10 Renewable Energy Options and Frequency Regulation 191

10.1 RESs and New Challenges 191

10.2 Impact on Frequency Regulation: A Simulation Study 194

10.3 Considering RESs Effect in LFC Model 198

10.3.1 LFC Model with RESs 199

10.3.2 Required Supplementary LFC Reserve 200

10.3.3 RESs and Frequency Performance Standards 201

10.4 A Survey on Recent Studies 203

10.5 Summary 206

References 206

Appendix A 209

Appendix B 211

Index 215

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