Sail Performance: Theory and Practice

Sail Performance: Theory and Practice

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Overview

Sail Performance: Theory and Practice by C. A. Marchaj, Czesaw A. Marchaj

Fully updated, this authoritative and richly illustrated standard reference offers the latest information on rig design, sail construction and trim, wind-sail interaction, and the structure of the wind. From his 40 years of research and wind-tunnel tests, acknowledged expert Marchaj describes how these factors affect sail power and why certain rigs are superior in power and efficiency. Accessible and nonmathematical, this major work represents the cutting-edge wisdom on sailboat performance and makes a significant contribution to our understanding of this absorbing, complex subject.

Tony Marchaj's expertise in wind tunnel and test tank research, combined with his practical sailing experience, make him uniquely qualified to write this book. Previously a research fellow in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Southampton University, he is now an independent aerodynamics consultant whose experience and advice is sought all around the world.

Each of his previous books--Sailing Theory and Practice, Aero-hydrodynamics of Sailing and Seaworthiness: the Forgotten Factor--have become classic references, and his technical paper on "Design for Extreme Conditions" was awarded the coveted Silver Medal by the Royal Institute of Naval Architects, of which he is a member.

Tony Marchaj's love of sailing began in his native Poland, where he was national Finn champion. It has continued with involvement in many different research projects, ranging from 12-metre rig design to third world fishing fleets. He now lives at his rural retreat in France.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780071413107
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date: 01/15/2003
Edition description: REV
Pages: 416
Product dimensions: 8.30(w) x 10.36(h) x 1.22(d)

About the Author

Tony Marchaj's expertise in wind tunnel and test tank research, combined with his practical sailing experience, make him uniquely qualified to write this book. Previously a research fellow in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Southampton University, he is now an independent aerodynamics consultant whose experience and advice is sought all around the world.

Each of his previous books--Sailing Theory and Practice, Aero-hydrodynamics of Sailing and Seaworthiness: the Forgotten Factor--have become classic references, and his technical paper on "Design for Extreme Conditions" was awarded the coveted Silver Medal by the Royal Institute of Naval Architects, of which he is a member.

Tony Marchaj's love of sailing began in his native Poland, where he was national Finn champion. It has continued with involvement in many different research projects, ranging from 12-metre rig design to third world fishing fleets. He now lives at his rural retreat in France.

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

List of symbols

Part 1: Yacht Evolution, Rating Formulae and Speed Performance

1. Speed and Size

2. The Traditional Cruising Yacht Concept

3. Reaction Against Fast Boats

4. The Flat-out Racer Concept

5. Seakindliness and Seaworthiness

6. Speed Performance Factors

7. How Fast is Fast

8. Weather Factors

9. The Drive Towards Ultimate Speed

Part 2: Aerodynamics of Sails

1. Introduction

2. How and Why an Aerodynamic Force is Produced

Early attempts to estimate aerodynamic force

Pressure difference--the right way to explain sail forces

Flow visualization and other means of exemplifying the theory of foil action

3. Distribution of Pressure Over Sails

Unequal contribution of pressures to the driving force

Which sail contributes more to the driving force: mainsail or headsail?

The slot effect controversy

The effect of the mast on pressure distribution

The basic flow pattern around the sail section

4. The Effects of Aerodynamic Forces

5. The Measurement of Aerodynamic Forces

Introductory interpretation of wind tunnel test results

6. Aerodynamic Drag of the Sail

Induced drag

Friction drag

Form drag

Additional aerodynamic drag

7. Apparent Wind Structure

8. The Dependence of the Optimum Angle of Sail Incidence upon Heading Angle and Wind Strength

Reaching conditions (wind abeam)

Close-hauled, close-reaching

Course theorem (Lanchester's principle)

The relativeimportance of sails and hull in boat performance

The effects of wind strength on sail performance in close-hauled conditions

9. The Importance of Sail Camber

Selecting the optimum camber

The effect of the position of maximum camber

10. The Importance of Sail Planform

Tests on single sails

Tests on sloops; Bermudan rigs

11. The Sail Power of Various Rigs

The criteria of sail power adopted (close-hauled, reaching, running, summary of the sail criteria)

The overall potential driving power of rigs tested

How does the crab claw work?

Factors affecting the crab claw's efficiency (leading edge, camber effect, rigging, planform and the position of the sail relative to the vertical)

Comparison of the crab claw's performance with that of the lateen sail

12. Wind Gradient Effect and Sail - Hull Interference

Sail performance at different heading angles

Effective aspect ratio

The effect of the hull on sail forces

The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of rectangular sails

The effect of drying sailcloth on CL and CD (porosity)

13. Wing Sails and Other Unconventional Rigs

Single element wing sails

Double skin versus single skin sails

Multi-foil (multi-slotted) wing sails

Tuning problems of multi-slotted wing sails (alternative wing sail solutions)

Efficiency of foils with curved planforms (crescent-shaped foils)

Rotating two-sail rigs

14. Sail Interaction

Influence of the foresail on the mainsail

Sheeting of the main and foresails

15. Some Remarks About Sail Trim

Lessons learned from the wind tunnel tests

Headsail trim (what telltails tell, adjusting headsails by recutting, fairlead position)

Overlap (self-tacking jib, fore-and-aft distribution of camber, aspect ratio)

Spinnaker

16. Centre of Effort

The centre of effort and its relation to directional balance of a yacht

Movement of the true centre of effort

The centre of effort for the combination of main, mizzen and foresail

17. Some Remarks About the Cut, Set and Defects of Sails

The properties of sail fabrics

The principles of cutting mainsails

The problem of flexible spars

Cutting headsails

Adjusting the rigging

Part 3: Steady and Unsteady Wind

1. The Significance of Barometric Depression

2. True Wind Structure

3. Local Winds

4. The Wind Over a Regatta Course

5. Microbursts

6. Pumping--a Legitimate Sailing Technique

Gradual change of incidence angle

Rapid and repeated changes of incidence (pumping)

7. Sailing Downwind (Rolling)

8. The Katzmayr Effect

Appendices

Appendix 1. About Forces and Vectors

Appendix 2. Reynolds Number and 'Scale Effect'

Appendix 3. Beaufort Scale of Wind Speed

Appendix 4. Conversion Factors

References and Notes

Index

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