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Taken from the pages of Science and supplemented by contributions from the magazine’s editors, State of the Planet 2008-2009 offers contemporary science writing that is sometimes provocative, frequently enlightening, and always authoritative. Published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Science is one of the most respected scientific magazines in the world. With a readership of more than one million people, it offers “hard science” from top scientists to both educated lay readers and scientists alike.
The articles collected here are arranged thematically and each section is introduced by a prominent scientist or science writer. Donald Kennedy, who was Editor-in-Chief of Science when these articles appeared in the magazine, contributes a preface and several short essays. Focusing on issues of energy and sustainability, sections of the volume are devoted to the prospects of energy-sparing technologies and alternatives to fossil fuel use, including ethanol and cellulosic digestion. Other sections center on climate change, led by a comprehensive essay on the state of scientific knowledge today and followed by contributions about the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, as well as the effects of climate change that have been measured to date, including changes in migration and breeding cycles of birds and flowering in plants, changing patterns of hurricanes and extreme weather events, and alterations in forest fire frequency.
Interspersed throughout the book are Science news pieces that highlight particular issues and cases relevant to the main scientific findings. A glossary of key terms and concepts helps students and nonspecialists better understand the terminology and the issues.
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Table of Contents
Introduction Donald Kennedy 1
Introductions Donald Kennedy 5
The Energy-Economy-Environment Dilemma John P. Holdren 8
Renewable Energy Sources and the Realities of Settings at Energy Agenda Janez Potocnik 16
Ethanol for a Sustainable Energy future Jose Goldemberc 21
The Billion-Ton Biofuels-Vision Chris Somerville 28
The Biofuels Conundrum Donald Kennedy 31
Carbon-Negative Biofuels from Low-Input High-Diversity Grassland Biomass David Tilman Jason Hill Clarence LEHMAN 33
Commentary: Carbon-Negative Biofuels form Low-Input High-Diversity Grassland Biomass" Michael P. Russelle R. Vance Morey John M. Baker Paul M. Porter Hans-Joachim G. Jung 40
Response to Commentary: "Carbon Negative Biofuels from Low-Input High-Diversity Grassland Biomass" David Tilman Jason Hill Clarence Lehman 43
Can the Upstarts Top Silicon? Robert F. Service 47
What's Already Happened?
Introduction Donald Kennedy 57
Warming and Earlier Spring Increaser Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity A.L. Westerling H. G. Hidalgo D. R. Cayan T.W. Swetnam 63
How Much More Rain Will Global Warming Bring? Frank J. Wentz Lucrezia Ricciardull Kyle Hilburn Carl Mears 74
Running Out of Water and Time John Bohannon 82
Rapid Advance of Spring Arrival Dates in Long-Distance Migratory Birds Niclas Jonzen Anderas Linden Torbjorn Ergon Endre Knudsen Jon Olva Vik Diergo Rubolini Dario Piacentini Christian Brinch Fernando Spina Lennart Karlsson Matin Stervander Arne Andersson Jonas Waldenstrom Aleksi Lehikoinen Erik Edvardsen Rune Solvang Nils Chr. Stenseth 88
Perspectives on the Arctic's Shrinking Sea-Ice Cover Mark C. Serreze Marika M. Holland Julienne Stroeve93
Recent Sea Level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets Andrew Shepherd Duncan Wingham 103
projecting The Future
Intruduction Donald Kennedy 115
IPCC Report Lays Out Options for Taming Greenhouse Gases John Bohannon Eli Kintisch 119
The Limits of Consensus Michael Oppenheimer Brian C. o'Neill Mort Webster Shardul Agrawala 123
Commentary: A Closer Look at the Ipcc Report Susan Solomon Richard Alley Jonathan Gregory Peter Lemke Martin Manning 128
Response to Commentary: A Closer Look at the IPCC Report Michael Oppenheimer Brain O'Neill Mort Webster Shardul Agrawala 130
Simulating Arctic Climate Warmth and Ice Fields Retreat in the Interglaciation Bette L. Otto -Bliesner Shawn J. Marshall Jonathan T. Overpeck Gifford H. Miller Aixue Hu Cape Last Interglacial Project Members 132
A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea Level Rise Stefan Rahmstorf 140
Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030 David B. Lobell Marshall B. Burke Claudia Tebaldi Michael D Mastrandrea Walter P. Falcon Rosamond L. Naylor 146
Critical Assumptions in the Stern Review on Climate Change William Nordhaus 155
Climate Change: Risk, Ethics, and the Stern Review Nicholas Stern Chris Taylor 161
Dealing With Climate Change
Introduction Donald Kennedy 169
A Combined Mitigation-Geoengincering Approach to Climate Stabilization T.M. L. Wigley 173
Preparing to Capture Carbon Daniel P. Schrac 180
A Guide to Co2 Sequestration Klaus S. Lackner 186
Carbon Trading William H. Schlesincer 191
Carbon Trading Over Taxes William Chameides Michael Oppenheimer 193