The Workshop “Science with the VLT in the ELT Era” held in Garching from 8th to 12th October 2007 was organised by ESO, with support from its Scienti c and Technical Committee, to provide a forum for the astronomical community to debate the long term future of ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) and its interferometric mode (VLTI). In particular it was considered useful for future planning to evaluate how its science use may evolve over the next decade due to competition and/or synergy with new facilities such as ALMA, JWST and, hopefully, at least one next generation 30–40 m extremely large telescope whose acronym appears in the title to symbolise this wider context. These discussions were also held in the fresh light of the Science Vision recently developed within ASTRONET as the rst step towards a 20 year plan for implementing astronomical facilitiesthe rst such attempt within Europe. Speci c ideas and proposals for new, second generation VLT/I instruments were also solicited following a tradition set by several earlier Workshops held since the start of the VLT development. The programme consisted of invited talks and reviews and contributed talks and posters. Almost all those given are included here although, unfortunately not the several lively but constructive discussion sessions.
Table of ContentsVLT Science Highlights.- VLT Science Highlights.- Pushing the VLT Spectroscopy of Distant Galaxies to the Limits and Future Prospects.- Pushing FORS to the LimitA New Population of Faint Extended Ly? Emitters at z?3.- VIMOS Integral Field Spectroscopy of Gaseous Nebulae in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies.- Near IR Integral Field Spectroscopy of a Nearby Starburst.- The ESO Large Programme “First Stars”.- The Contribution of UVES@VLT to the New Era of QSO Absorption Line Studies.- IMAGES: A Unique View of the Galaxy Mass Assembly Since z=1.- The Metallicity Evolution at High Redshift.- Near-IR Spectroscopy of Blue Supergiants.- Integral Field Spectroscopy of Protoplanetary Disks in Orion with VLT FLAMES.- MAD@VLT: Deep into the Madding Crowd of Omega Centauri.- Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy and Supernova Yields after UVES.- VLTI Science Highlights.- VLTI Science Highlights.- MIDI Sees Active Galactic Nuclei.- The Use of the VLTI for Studying the Asymmetric Mass Loss of Evolved Stars.- Mid-infrared Interferometric Observations of Young Circumstellar Discs.- VLTI-AMBER Observations of ?Carinae with High Spatial Resolution and Spectral Resolutions of ?/??=1500 and 12?000*.- Resolving the Inner Active Accretion Disk Around the Herbig Be Star MWC147 with VLTI/MIDI?+?AMBER Spectro-interferometry.- Multi-epoch VLTI/MIDI Observations of the Carbon-rich Mira Star V Oph.- A Mid-infrared Interferometric Study of the Circumstellar Environment of Dusty OH/IR Stars with VLTI/MIDI.- The Closest Dusty Cloud Ever Detected Around a R CrB Variable Star Using the VLTI/MIDI Instrument.- Future VLT and VLTI Science Priorities.- A Twenty Year Science Vision for European Astronomy.- Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations.- Galaxy Formation and Evolution.- Exoplanets: The Road to Earth Twins.- Next Generation Deep Redshift Surveys withtheVLT.- GUAIX: The UCM Group of Extragalactic Astrophysics and Astronomical Instrumentation.- VISTA Public Surveys and VLT followup.- Probing Dark Energy with Cosmological Redshift Surveys at the VLT.- The First Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters.- Narrow Band Surveys and the Epoch of Reionization.- Stellar Archaeology and Galaxy Genesis: TheNeed for Large Area Multi-Object Spectrograph on 8m-Class Telescopes.- Near-field Cosmology with the VLT.- Chemical Evolution of Local Group Galaxies.- The VLTI as a Tool to Study Eclipsing Binaries for an Improved Distance Scale.- VLT and VLTI Synergy with ELTs.- Status of the European ELT.- The Science Case for the European ELT.- GRB Afterglows in the ELT Era.- On the Way to an E-ELT Instrumentation Plan.- From ESPRESSO to CODEX.- First Results of AQuEye, a Precursor ‘Quantum’ Instrument for the E-ELT.- The E-ELT: A Chance to Measure Cosmic Magnetic Fields.- The Experience from VISIR and the Design of an ELT Mid-infrared Instrument.- HARMONI: A Narrow Field Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph for the E-ELT.- Which Synergies Between LBT/LINC Nirvana and Future ELTs?.- TMT Science and Instruments.- VLT Synergies with ALMA and JWST.- The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.- Observational Cosmology with the ELT and JWST.- Integral Field Spectroscopy of (U)LIRGs. From VLT to JWST.- Second Generation VLT and VLTI Instrument Programme.- VLT and VLTI Second Generation Instrument Overview and Resources.- HAWK-I and Infrared Imaging on the VLT.- X-Shooter: A Medium-resolution, Wide-Band Spectrograph for the VLT.- KMOS and KMOS++.- New Science Opportunities Offered by MUSE.- SPHERE: A ‘Planet Finder’ Instrument for the VLT.- Milli-arcsecond Astrophysics with VSI, the VLTI Spectro-imager in the ELT Era.- Prospects for Near-infrared Characterisation ofHot Jupiters with the VLTI Spectro-imager (VSI).- MATISSE.- MATISSE Science Cases.- GRAVITY: Microarcsecond Astrometry and Deep Interferometric Imaging with the VLT.- New Instrument Concepts and VLT/I Operating Modes.- Smart Focal Plane Technologies for VLT Instruments.- Applications of Digital Micromirror Devices to Astronomical Instrumentation.- FORS in the Era of Second Generation VLT Instrumentation.- Wide Field Options on the VLT.- A Few Degrees Very Wide Field of View Camera for VLT as a Finder for ELT.- Science with a 16 m VLT: The Case for Variability of Fundamental Constants.- ESPRESSO: A High Resolution Spectrograph for the Combined Coudé Focus of the VLT.- Feeding Optics for the ESPRESSO Spectrograph.- New Design Approach for a Very-High Resolution Spectrograph for the VLT Combined Focus.- ESPRESSO Optomechanics.- ESPRESSO Science Software.- High Resolution Wavelength Calibration: Advancements with the Laser Frequency Comb Development.- Precision Radial Velocities in the Infrared.- Very Large Spectroscopic Surveys with the VLT.- New Developments in Integral Field Spectroscopy.- ULTRAPHOT.- Super-GIRAFFE: The Next Generation High Multiplex Optical Spectrograph with d-IFUs.- FLEX (The First Light Explorer)The Science Case for a Fully OH Suppressed IFU Spectrograph.- An N-Band Integral Field Spectrometer Survey Instrument for the VLT.- High Resolution Visible Imaging on the VLT.- Life on the Fast Lane: The Burst Mode at the VLT at Present and in the Future.- High Resolution Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Prospects for 10 and 40m Class Telescopes.- Prospects and Needs of Micro-arcsecond Astrometry.- CASIS: Cassegrain Adaptive-Optics Simultaneous Imaging System for the VLT.- The Need for a General Purpose Diffraction Limited Imager at the VLT.- Exploring the Time AxisHigh Resolution Timing Observations with Present and Future Instrumentation.- Advanced Calibration for Quantitative Astrophysics: 2nd Generation VLT Instruments and Beyond.- Quantitative Near-IR Spectroscopy of OB Stars.- The Very Large Telescope Interferometer intheELTEra.- VLTI and Beyond: The Next Steps in AGN Research with Interferometers.