Scientism

Scientism

by John Cowburn, Tim Patrick

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781625643391
Publisher: Wipf & Stock Publishers
Publication date: 09/01/2013
Pages: 170
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.40(d)

About the Author

John Cowburn is retired professor of philosophy at the United Faculty of Theology, one of the teaching institutions of the MCD University of Divinity based in Melbourne, Australia

Table of Contents

1 Science and Scientism

What science is 5

Pure science, which exists only as an ideal 5

Hard science, which exists 8

Soft science, which also exists 10

The two sciences 11

Determinism and indeterminacy 12

Class division in science or scientific snobbery 13

Scientism 14

Einstein 17

The influence of scientism in various fields 17

Edward O. Wilson 21

Some problems with scientism 22

2 Philosophy

The mechanicistic form of metaphysical materialism 24

Empiricism 25

Positivism 29

Twentieth-century British philosophy 30

Logical Positivism 32

3 Determinism

An underlying principle of classical physics: determinism 35

Prediction 36

Responsibility 37

Morality 38

Some critical comments on determinism 38

What determinism means for individual persons 43

What determinism means for society 45

4 The Rejection of Values and Morality

The rejection of values 47

The implications of this in particular fields 48

The inconsistency of this position in theoretical science 49

The inconsistency of this position in applied science 50

The impossibility of rejecting values, in life 51

Morality 52

A value-judgement on the denial of values 53

5 Scientific Value Theories

Philosophies of life 55

Social philosophies 57

Criticism of this 60

6 Psychology

The history of scientific psychology 61

Measurement or the numbers game 63

The denial of the self 65

Determinism in psychology 67

Other psychological schools 72

7 Criminal Justice

Heredity and a "conservative" criminology 75

Environmentalism and "liberal" criminology 76

Some comments on this liberal theory 80

Objections to Determinism in this context 82

Deeper objections 83

A positive position 83

Degrees of responsibility 84

8 Eugenics

Before eugenics 86

The beginnings of eugenics: 1865-1900 86

The heyday of eugenics in England: 1900-1930 89

The heyday of eugenics in the United States 93

Canada 100

Nazi Germany 101

Scandanavia 102

Australia 102

Opposition to Eugenics 103

The fall of eugenics 106

The recent resurgence of eugenics 107

Conclusion 110

A late note 111

9 Scientism and Religion

The conflict between religion and science 112

Areas of conflict 115

The complete rejection of religion 116

Christian reactions to scientific rationalism 118

Scientific religions without social gatherings 119

Scientific religion with social gatherings 122

Comte and religious positivism 122

Other forms of scientific social religion: ßchurches with the word "science" in their names 132

Genuinely scientific Christians 134

10 Anti-Science

The flight from science 135

The distrust of science 137

11 The Levels of Reality and Scientific Reduction

Levels of reality 140

What reduction is 146

Scientistic reduction of the first kind 149

Scientistic reduction of the second kind 151

The appeal of reductionism 153

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