One of the world's most influential cultural critics, Antonio Gramsci's writings on the interconnection between culture and politics fundamentally changed the way that scholars view both. Among the first to argue that art is not the product of "men of genius" but rather particular historical and social contexts, Gramsci remains one of the most widely read theorists of modern culture.
Antonio Gramsci was a founding member of the Italian Communist Party and spent most of his adult life imprisoned by Benito Mussolini. After his death and the subsequent publication of his Prison Notebooks, he came to be known as one of the twentieth century's foremost cultural critics.
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About the Author
Antonio Gramsci (January 22, 1891 April 27, 1937) was a founding member of the Italian Communist Party, and spent most of his adult life imprisoned by Mussolini for his opposition to the Fascist regime. After his death and the subsequent publication of his Prison Notebooks he came to be known as one of the 20th century's foremost cultural critics, and is widely recognized as an important theorist of class, culture, and the state.
Geoffrey Nowell-Smith is Honorary Professorial Fellow at Queen Mary University of London. He was co-translator and co-editor with Quintin Hoare of Antonio Gramscis's Selections from Prison Notebooks (L&W and International Publishers, NY, 1971). He is Editor of The Oxford History of World Cinema (Oxford and New York: OUP, 1996) and his most recent book is Making Waves: New Cinemas of the 1960s (NY and London: Continuum, 2008). His history of the British Film Institute (with Christophe Dupin) will appear from Manchester University Press in fall 2011.
David Forgacs is Professor of Italian at University College London and author of Rome Open City in the BFI Film Classics series.
Table of Contents
Note on the Text
Abbreviations of Works Cited
I. PROLETARIAN CULTURE
Politics and Culture
1. For a Cultural Association.
2. Philanthropy, Good Will and Organization.
3. A Single Language and Esperanto.
4. Culture and Class Struggle.
5. Serial Novels.
6. *Communism and Art.
7. The Problem of the School.
8. *Questions of Culture.
9. Party Art.
10. The Futurists.
11. Marineni the Revolutionary?
12. *A Letter to Trotsky on Futurism.
13. Theatre and Cinema.
14. The Theatre Industry (i).
15. The Theatre Industry (ii).
16. The Chiarella Brothers Again.
17. The Theatre Industry (iii).
18. Continuation of Life.
20. Emma Gramatica.
21. Morality and Standards.
22. Non amarmi così! by Fraccaroli.
23. Anfisa by Andreyev.
24. Pensaci, Giacomino! by Pirandello.
25. Liolà by Pirandello.
26. Così è (se vi pare) by Pirandello.
27. Il piacere dell'onestà by Pirandello.
28. Il giuoco delleparti by Pirandello.
29. La ragione degli altri by Pirandello.
II. PROBLEMS OF CRITICISM
1. Back to De Sanctis.
2. Art and the Struggle for a New Civilization.
3. Art and Culture.
4. Adeichi Baratono.
5. Literary Criticism. Paul Nizan.
6. Constituting an Epoch.
7. Croce and Literary Criticism.
8. Ethico-political History.
9. *Educative Art.
10. Criteria of Literary Criticism.
11. For a New Literature (Art) through a New Culture.
12. *Individualism and Art.
13. Criteria of Method.
14. *The Writer's Attitude.
15. Non-National-Popular Characteristics of Italian Literature. *'Contentism' and 'Calligraphism'.
16. Languages of the Arts.
18. Sincerity (or Spontaneity) and Discipline.
19. Cultural Themes. 'Rationalism' (i).
20. Popular Literature. "Functional' Literature.
21. Popular Literature. *Rationalism (iii).
22. Popular Literature. *Functional Literature.
23. The New Architecture.
24. Justification of Autobiography (i).
25. Justification of Autobiography (ii).
26. Some Criteria of 'Literary'Judgement.
27. Methodological Criteria.
1. Father Bresciani's Progeny: Pirandello.
2. Italian Literature: Pirandello.
3. Theatre of Pirandello *(i).
4. Theatre of Pirandeilo *(ii).
5. An Early Note by Pirandello.
IV. CANTO X OF DANTE'S INFERNO
1. "Structure' and 'Poetry'.
2. Criticism of the 'Unexpressed'?
• Pliny and Lessing.
4. *Guido Cavalcanti's Death.
5. Guido's Disdain.
6. Vincenzo Morello.
7. The 'Renunciations of Description' in the Divine Comedy.
8. *The Blind Tiresias.
V. LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS AND FOLKLORE
1. The Question of the Language and the Italian Intellectual Classes.
2. Bellonci and Crémieux.
3. Giulio Bertoni and Linguistics.
4. Linguistic Problems: Giulio Bertoni.
6. Linguistics: Sicardi.
7. Croce's Essay 'This Round Table is Square'.
8. How Many Forms of Grammar Can There Be?
9. Sources of Diffusion of Linguistic Innovations in the Tradition and of a National Linguistic Conformism in the Broad National Masses.
10. Different Kinds of Normative Grammar.
11. Historical and Normative Grammars.
12. Grammar and Technique.
13. The So-called 'Question of the Language'.
14. Observations on Folklore: Giovanni Crocioni.
15. Observations on Folklore: 'Natural Law' and Folklore.
16. Folklore: 'Contemporary Pre-history'.
• Popular Songs.
VI. PEOPLE, NATION AND CULTURE
1. Connection of Problems.
2. Popular Literature: Content and Form.
3. Concept of 'National-Popular'.
4. Study of the Moral and Intellectual Tendencies and Interests Prevalent in Literary Circles.
5. The Study of the Historical Formation of the Italian Intellectuals.
6. Humanism and Renaissance (i).
7. Humanism and Renaissance (ii).
8. Humanism and Renaissance (iii).
9. The Renaissance.
10. The Sixteenth Century.
11. Non-National-Popular Character of Italian Literature.
12. Philosophical Novels, Utopias, etc.
13. Indirect Sources: 'Utopias' and So-called 'Philosophical Novels'.
14. Moments of Intensely Collective and Unitary Life in the National Development of the Italian People.
15. Popular Aspects of the Risorgimento: Volunteers and Popular Intervention.
16. Interpretations of the Risorgimento (i).
17. Interpretations of the Risorgimento (ii).
18. Gioberti andJacobinism.
19. Formation and Spread of the New Bourgeoisie in Italy.
20. Ugo Foscolo and Italian Literary Rhetoric.
21. Alfredo Oriani.
22. Italian National Culture.
23. French and Italian Historical Culture.
25. Julien Benda.
26. Emmanuel Ben.
27. The Public and Italian Literature.
28. On Italian Literature: *G.A. Borgese.
29. The Italians and the Novel.
30. Luigi Capuana.
31. Tendencies in Italian Culture: Giovanni Cena.
32. Gino Saviotti.
33. Popular Literature: Giuseppe Ungaretti.
34. *'The 'People' and the 'Public'.
35. Intellectuals and Literature.
36. Consent of the Nation or of the 'Elect'.
37. *The Bureaucrats.
38. *Enrico Thovez.
39. Antonio Fradeletto.
40. Americanism: Babbitt.
41. Americanism: Babbitt Again.
42. Notes on American Culture.
43. The English and Religion.
44. Intellectuals: Notes on English Culture (i).
45. Intellectuals: Notes on English Culture (ii).
1. The 'Popularity' of Tolstoy and Manzoni.
2. Attitude to the People in The Betrothed.
3. 'The Humble'.
4. Manzoni and 'The Humble'.
5. Popular Literature: Manzoni.
VIII. FATHER BRESCIANI'S PROGENY
1. Father Bresciani's Progeny.
2. Two Generations.
3. Ugo Ojetti and the Jesuits.
5. Giovanni Papini.
6. Giuseppe Prezzolini.
7. Curzio Malaparte.
8. Luca Beltrami (Polifilo).
9. Leonida Répaci.
10. Giovanni Ansaldo.
11. War Literature.
12. The Academy of Ten.
13. La Fiera Letteraria.
14. Bontempelli's Novecentismo.
15. 'Novecentismo' and 'Super-country'.
16. Super-city and Super-country.
17. Jahier, Raimondi and Proudhon.
18. *Enrico Corradini.
19. Ardengo Soffici.
20. Cardarelli and La Ronda.
21. A Sphinx Without Riddles.
22. Portrait of the Italian Peasant.
23. 'Catholic Art'.
24. 'Technically' Catholic Writers.
25. Bruno Cicognani.
26. Alessandro Luzio.
27. Inconclusive Debates.
IX. POPULAR LITERATURE
1. Influence of French Romantic Serials.
3. Carlo Linati on 'Interest'.
4. Serial Novels.
5. *The Heroes of Popular Literature.
6. Guerin Meschino.
7. Raffaello Giovagnoli's Spartaco.
8. *Aldo Sorani on Popular Literature.
9. Popular Origin of the 'Superman'.
10. Various Types of Popular Novel.
11. Popularity of Italian Literature.
12. *Populist Tendencies.
13. The Book Fair.
14. Popular Theatre and Novel.
16. Verne and the Scientific-geographical Novel.
17. The Detective Novel (i).
18. The Detective Novel (ii).
19. Cultural Derivatives of the Serial Novel.
20. *André Moufflet on the Serial Novel.
21. Novelized Biographies.
22. *The Operatic Conception of Life.
23. Popular Literature: Opera.
24. Popular Literature: Operatic Taste.
25. Oratory, Conversation, Culture.
1. Cultural Themes: Ideological Material.
2. Italian Intellectuals.
3. Types of Periodical: Dilettantism and Discipline.
4. Types of Periodical: The Final Evolutionary Being.
5. Types of Periodical: *Critical Information.
6. Journalism: Almanacs.
7. Journalism: Readers.
8. Journalism: Intellectual Movements and Centres.
9. Journalism: Types of Periodical: *External Appearance.
10. Journalism: Types of Periodical: *Political Education.
12. *Types of Newspaper.
13. Types of Periodical.
14. *Types of Periodical: Moralizing Reviews.
15. Yearbooks and Almanacs.
17. Original Essays and Translations.
18. Science Columns.
19. Schools ofJournalism.
*Asterisk indicates that the title is not Gramsci's, but supplied by the editors.