Sentencing and Criminal Justice / Edition 5

Sentencing and Criminal Justice / Edition 5

by Andrew Ashworth
ISBN-10:
0521748755
ISBN-13:
9780521748759
Pub. Date:
03/15/2010
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
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Overview

Sentencing and Criminal Justice / Edition 5

Taking into account the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 and the Coroners and Justice Act 2009, this overview of the key issues in English sentencing policy and practice provides unrivalled coverage of one of the most high-profile stages in the criminal justice process.

This fifth edition looks critically at the machinery for producing sentencing guidelines, the Court of Appeal's approach to the custody threshold, the framework for the sentencing of young offenders and the abiding problems of previous convictions in sentencing. Andrew Ashworth takes into account criminological research, statistical trends and theories of punishment, offering clear explanations of the relationships between legislation, guidelines and court decisions. He skilfully provides a rounded view of the relevant principles and problems of sentencing and criminal justice.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780521748759
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 03/15/2010
Series: Law in Context Series
Edition description: Fifth
Pages: 504
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Table of legislative measures xiii

Table of cases xxi

1 An introduction to English sentencing 1

1.1 Courts and crimes 1

1.2 The available sentences 3

1.3 The general statistical background 8

1.4 The criminal process 15

1.5 The formal sources of sentencing decisions 24

1.6 Informal influences on sentencing practice 41

2 Sentencing and the constitution 51

2.1 The separation of powers in sentencing 51

2.2 The Sentencing Advisory Panel, the Sentencing Guidelines Council and the Sentencing Council 55

2.3 Constitutional aspects of the struggle over sentencing policy 61

2.4 The Judicial Studies Board 64

2.5 The position of the magistracy 65

2.6 European Union law 67

2.7 European human rights law 68

2.8 Conclusions 70

3 Sentencing aims, principles and policies 71

3.1 The aims of the criminal justice system 71

3.2 Justifying state punishment 74

3.3 The rationales of sentencing 76

3.4 Some principles and policies 95

3.5 Sentencing rationales and English criminal justice 100

4 Elements of proportionality 104

4.1 The proportionality principle 104

4.2 Opinions about offence-seriousness 106

4.3 Developing parameters of ordinal proportionality 108

4.4 Offence-seriousness in practice 115

4.5 Individual culpability 148

4.6 Proportionality and offence-seriousness 151

5 Aggravation and mitigation 156

5.1 Some preliminary problems of principle 156

5.2 Aggravation as increased seriousness 158

5.3 Mitigation as diminished seriousness 168

5.4 Personal mitigation 170

5.5 Mitigation and aggravation in practice 188

5.6 Aggravation and mitigation in theory 191

6 Persistence, prevention and prediction 195

6.1 Historical introduction 195

6.2 Four approaches to punishing persistence 197

6.3 Previous convictions and the Criminal Justice Act 2003 206

6.4 The problem of 'professional' criminals 219

6.5 Persistent petty offenders 220

6.6 Civil preventive orders: the ASBO 221

6.7 Minimum sentences and selective incapacitation 224

6.8 'Dangerous offenders' and the 2003 Act 228

6.9 Conclusion 238

7 Equality before the law 239

7.1 The principle and its challengers 239

7.2 Race 241

7.3 Gender 245

7.4 Employment status 249

7.5 Financial circumstances 251

7.6 Social status 254

7.7 Equality, parsimony and risk 255

8 Multiple offenders 260

8.1 Charging the multiple offender 261

8.2 Concurrent or consecutive? 263

8.3 Effect of the statutory principle 269

8.4 Consecutive sentences and the totality principle 270

8.5 Multiple offenders, proportionality and guidelines 275

9 Custodial sentencing 278

9.1 The state of the prisons 279

9.2 The use of imprisonment 283

9.3 Principles for the use of custodial sentences 287

9.4 The custody threshold: short custodial sentences and suspended sentences 294

9.5 Determinate custodial sentences of 12 months and longer: release on licence 304

9.6 Indeterminate sentences 309

9.7 Demographic features of the prison population 310

9.8 Conclusions 316

10 Non-custodial sentencing 318

10.1 A brief history 318

10.2 The absolute discharge 320

10.3 Conditional discharges and bind-overs 320

10.4 Compensation orders 322

10.5 Fines 327

10.6 The community sentence 338

10.7 Deferment of sentence 353

10.8 Conclusions 354

11 Procedural issues and ancillary orders 358

11.1 The statutory sentencing framework 358

11.2 Ancillary orders 359

11.3 The obligation to give reasons for sentence 370

11.4 The factual basis for sentencing 372

11.5 Police antecedents statements 376

11.6 The role of the prosecution 377

11.7 Pre-sentence reports 378

11.8 Defence speech in mitigation 380

11.9 The role of the victim 382

12 Special sentencing powers 388

12.1 Young offenders 388

12.2 Young adult offenders 401

12.3 Mentally disordered offenders 403

13 Conclusions 413

13.1 The responsibility of sentencing 413

13.2 Rungs on the penal ladder 415

13.3 Delivering change: creating a guideline system 417

13.4 Risk, public protection and trifurcation 421

13.5 Proportionality and social justice 423

13.6 Future directions 424

Appendix 425

References 430

Index 450

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