Sex-Based Discrimination:Text, Cases and Materials

Sex-Based Discrimination:Text, Cases and Materials

by Herma Hill Kay, Herman Hill

Hardcover(Older Edition)


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780314260123
Publisher: West Academic Publishing
Publication date: 05/01/2002
Series: American Casebook Series and Other Cours
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 1252
Product dimensions: 7.87(w) x 10.24(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Authors' Note and Acknowledgementsvii
Acknowledgements and Permissionix
Table of Casesxix
Introduction: What is Equality Between the Sexes?1
Chapter I.Constitutional Limits on Sex-Based Discrimination10
A.The Tradition10
1.Text Note: Legislative and Judicial Perspectives on American Womanhood10
2.Men as Victims?21
United States v. St. Clair21
Notes on St. Clair22
B.The New Direction23
1.The Turning Point23
Reed v. Reed23
Notes on Reed27
Text Note: An Overview of Equal Protection Analysis28
2.Sex as a "Suspect" Classification30
Frontiero v. Richardson30
Notes on Frontiero37
3.An Intermediate Approach40
Craig v. Boren40
Notes on Craig53
4.Heightened "Skeptical" Scrutiny58
United States v. Virginia et al.58
Notes on VMI89
C.Identifying the Victims of Discrimination90
1.Discrimination as the "Accidental By-Product of a Traditional Way of Thinking About Females"90
Califano v. Goldfarb90
Notes on Goldfarb103
2.Purposeful Discrimination106
Tuan Anh Nguyen v. I.N.S.106
Rostker v. Goldberg126
Notes on Tuan Anh Nguyen and Rostker141
Text Note: Women in the Military143
3."Benign" Classifications153
Mississippi University For Women v. Hogan153
Notes on Hogan164
4.Gender-Neutral Classifications167
Personnel Adm'r of Massachusetts v. Feeney167
Notes on Feeney179
D.First Amendment Constraints on Sex Discrimination Claims182
1.Private Clubs182
Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club182
Notes on Rotary International187
American Booksellers Ass'n, Inc. v. Hudnut195
Notes on Hudnut203
E.State Equal Rights Amendments209
Guard v. Jackson209
Notes on Guard213
Chapter II.Sexual Interaction Within the Family218
A.Marriage and Family Life218
1.The Marriage Contract218
a.Traditional Marriage and Its Consequences for Women218
i.Age at Marriage, Married Name, Domicile218
Bobb v. Municipal Court218
In re Laura Beth Lamb on Disbarment222
Notes on Bobb and Lamb226
Text Note: The Married Woman's Loss of Identity227
ii.Support of Spouse and Children244
Commonwealth ex rel. Goldstein v. Goldstein244
Notes on Goldstein247
Text Note: Support of Spouse and Children During Marriage250
iii.Marital Property Regimes259
Kirchberg v. Feenstra259
Notes on Kirchberg261
Text Note: Position of the Wife in Common Law and Community Property States261
b.Rethinking the Marriage Contract274
i.Feminists and Marriage274
Proclamation 4786 of August 29, 1980275
The Politics of Housework282
The Family: Preserving America's Future286
Contract With the American Family289
Notes on Feminists and Marriage290
ii.Same-Sex Marriage293
Baker v. Nelson293
Baker v. State of Vermont296
Notes on Nelson and Baker309
2.Dissolution of Marriage312
Text Note: The Statutory Basis for Marriage Dissolution312
b.Financial Provisions316
In re Marriage of Morrison316
White v. White321
Petersen v. Petersen326
Notes on Morrison, White, and Petersen331
Text Note: Spousal Support and Division of Property Following Divorce338
c.Custody and Support of Children342
Pikula v. Pikula342
Tresnak v. Tresnak349
E.N.O. v. L.M.M.353
Zepeda v. Zepeda364
Notes on Pikula, Tresnak, E.N.O. and Zepeda368
Text Note: Child Custody and Support377
B.Family Life Without Marriage390
1.Barriers Against the Unwed Family390
Jarrett v. Jarrett390
Notes on Jarrett395
2.The Unwed Parent402
Lehr v. Robertson402
Notes on Lehr410
3.Text Note: Illegitimacy and Sex-Based Discrimination416
a.The Relative Rights of the Natural Parents416
b.Illegitimacy and the Social Status of Women419
4.Property Rights of Couples Living in Nonmarital Cohabitation425
Watts v. Watts425
Notes on Watts433
C.Text Note: The Legal Structure of Family Life437
D.Family Planning: Who Controls the Reproductive Process?439
Carey v. Population Servs. Int'l439
Notes on Carey448
2.Gestational Surrogacy451
Johnson v. Calvert451
Notes on Johnson467
Roe v. Wade470
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey479
Notes on Roe and Casey514
Walker v. Pierce516
Notes on Walker522
Text Note: Control of the Body525
Chapter III.Women and Employment540
Introductory Note540
A.Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964542
1.The Legal Framework for Title VII Litigation542
a.Disparate Impact542
Griggs v. Duke Power Co.542
Notes on Griggs547
Note on 1991 Amendments to Title VII558
b.Disparate Treatment560
i.The Prima Facie Case560
Mcdonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green560
Notes on McDonnell Douglas564
ii.Articulating Legitimate and Nondiscriminatory Reasons566
Texas Department of Community Affairs v. Burdine566
Notes on Burdine572
iii.Discriminatory Motive as a Finding of Fact and the "Clearly Erroneous" Standard of Review579
Anderson v. City of Bessemer City579
Notes on Anderson587
iv.Proof of Pretext590
St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks590
Notes on Hicks603
v."Mixed Motives" As Disparate Treatment608
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins608
Notes on Hopkins636
c.Systemic Disparate Treatment641
Ottaviani v. State University of New York at New Paltz641
Notes on Ottaviani652
2.Specific Applications of Title VII to Sex Discrimination657
a.Classifications Based on Sex657
Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corporation657
Notes on Phillips658
Willingham v. Macon Telegraph Pub. Co.660
Notes on Willingham664
Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. v. EEOC671
Notes on Newport News679
California Federal Sav. and Loan Ass'n v. Guerra681
Notes on Cal Fed695
Text Note Ensuring Non-Discrimination700
b.The BFOQ Defense to Sex-Based Classifications710
Dothard v. Rawlinson710
Notes on Dothard716
International Union, UAW v. Johnson Controls, Inc.722
Notes on Johnson Controls736
c.Sexual Harassment741
Meritor Savings Bank, FSB v. Vinson741
Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc.752
Notes on Vinson and Harris756
Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth770
Faragher v. City of Boca Raton781
Notes on Ellerth and Faragher792
d.Women in Upper Level Jobs793
Brown v. Trustees of Boston University793
Notes on Brown812
University of Pennsylvania v. E.E.O.C.815
Notes on University of Pennsylvania823
Text Note Proving Discrimination: Title VII in Academe826
3.Title VII Remedies840
a.Introductory Note840
b.Voluntary Affirmative Action: Reverse Discrimination Under Title VII?845
Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara County845
Notes on Johnson869
B.Wage Discrimination873
1.The Equal Pay Act of 1963873
a.Equal Work873
Shultz v. Wheaton Glass Co.873
Notes on Wheaton Glass879
EEOC v. Madison Comm. Unit School Dist. No. 12881
Notes on Madison School District887
b.Differentials Based on any Other Factor Other than Sex890
Hodgson v. Robert Hall Clothes, Inc.890
EEOC v. Madison Comm. Unit School Dist. No. 12894
Notes on Robert Hall and Madison School District897
2.Incorporation of the Equal Pay Act Into Title VII899
American Nurses' Association v. State of Illinois899
Notes on American Nurses' Association907
C.Constitutional Prohibitions Against Intentional Discrimination in Employment913
Washington v. Davis913
Personnel Adm'r of Massachusetts v. Feeney920
Notes on Washington v. Davis and Feeney920
Text Note The Post Civil War Civil Rights Acts: 42 U.S.C.A. [sections] 1981 and 1983925
Patterson v. McLean Credit Union927
Note on Patterson929
D.Obligations of Government Contractors931
1.Executive Order 11246931
Notes on the Executive Order931
2.Opportunities for Women-Owned Businesses933
Notes on Set-Aside Provisions for Government Contractors933
E.Text Note: The Role of Unions in Employment Discrimination951
Chapter IV.Educational Opportunity960
Introductory Note960
A.Constitutional Challenges to Sex Segregation in Education961
1.Admission Barriers: Single-Sex Schools961
United States v. Virginia961
Notes on VMI962
Text Note Is There a Place for Women's Colleges?970
2.The Right to Equal Play: Sex Segregation in Athletic Programs975
Clark v. Arizona Interscholastic Association975
Lantz by Lantz v. Ambach980
Notes on Clark and Lantz981
B.Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972986
Text Note Overview of Title IX986
1.Coverage and Remedies Under Title IX991
Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District991
Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education1002
Notes on Gebser and Davis1024
2.Title IX and College Athletics1031
Cohen v. Brown University [Cohen II]1031
Cohen v. Brown University [Cohen IV]1045
Notes on Cohen II and IV1066
C.Affirmative Action1070
Text Note Room at the Top: Affirmative Action at Colleges and Universities1070
D.Law Schools1078
Introductory Note Women as Law Students and Professors1078
Text Note Feminist Jurisprudence: What Is It? When Did It Start? Who Does It?1087
Chapter V.Women and Crime1091
1.Statutory Rape1091
Michael M. v. Superior Court1091
State v. Stevens1108
Notes on Michael M. and Stevens1109
2.Forcible Rape1111
Withers v. Levine1111
People v. Liberta1112
Notes on Withers and Liberta1121
Text Note Rape Reform Statutes1125
The Florida Star v. B.J.F.1128

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