Shadow Warfare traces the evolution of these covert operations, detailing the tactics and tools used from the Truman era through those of the contemporary Obama Administrations. It also explores the personalities and careers of many of the most noted shadow warriors of the past sixty years, tracing the decade-long relationship between the CIA and the military.
Shadow Warfare presents a balanced, non-polemic exploration of American secret warfare, detailing its patterns, consequences and collateral damage and presenting its successes as well as failures. Shadow Wars explores why every president from Franklin Roosevelt on, felt compelled to turn to secret, deniable military action. It also delves into the political dynamic of the president’s relationship with Congress and the fact that despite decades of combat, the U.S. Congress has chosen not to exercise its responsibility to declare a single state of war - even for extended and highly visible combat.
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About the Author
Larry Hancock graduated from the University of New Mexico with a triple major in anthropology, history, and education. He has worked on a variety of historical research projects, including November Patriots and Someone Would Have Talked. He lives in Oklahoma.
Stuart Wexler graduated from Tulane University with a degree in history. He now lives and teaches high school in New Jersey, where he won the prestigious James Madison Teachers’ Fellowship in 2010. Together with Hancock, he co-write The Awful Grace of God.
Read an Excerpt
Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1957: a 19-megaton hydrogen bomb is dropped in an uninhabited area; the conventional explosives detonate, producing a twelve-foot-deep crater, 25 feet wide; some radioactive contamination results. The following year a collision forces the jettisoning of a nuclear bomb in the Atlantic off Savannah, Georgia. And later that same year a B-47 out of Hunter Air Force Base, Georgia, drops an unarmed weapon into the garden of a house in Mars Bluff, South Carolina. The bombs’ conventional explosives detonate, destroying the house, damaging five other houses and a church while injuring six civilians. Within a decade’s time, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1964, 1965, and 1968 similar military accidents happen. As with the previous incidents, contamination occurs, some bombs are recovered (some are not), and SAC servicemen lose their lives. Almost all these incidents, whether on our turf or our allies’, receive little or no press, and some are revealed only decades later.
During the Cold War, we may not have been privy to everything that was happening on our turf or on that of our allies because many operations were designed to be clandestineto live in the shadows of the greater conflict. But one thing wasn’t secret: the Russians were shooting down our aircraft.
And we were damn mad about that.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 From Solution to Illusion 1
Chapter 2 The Personality Of Covert Action 19
Chapter 3 Evolution Of A Covert Warfare Infrastructure. 32
Chapter 4 Armies of Opportunity 46
Chapter 5 Fighting Communist China …Deniably 61
Chapter 6 Regime Change 78
Chapter 7 Shadow Warriors 91
Chapter 9 Face-Off in Indochina 126
Chapter 10 Covert to Overt in Laos 155
Chapter 11 Against the Castro Regime 175
Chapter 12 Autonomous and Deniable 195
Chapter 13 Holding the Line in the Congo 216
Chapter 14 Unanticipated Consequences 235
Chapter 15 Congressional Intervention 257
Chapter 16 Maintaining Anticommunist Regimes 284
Chapter 17 Targeted Infrastructure Warfare in the Southern Cone 308
Chapter 18 Pushing Back 326
Chapter 19 The Outsiders 354
Chapter 20 Risky Business 386
Chapter 21 It Happens 404
Chapter 22 New Enemies 423
Chapter 23 New Weapons 441
Chapter 24 A Turn to Gray Warfare 460
Chapter 25 Other Boots on the Ground 483
Chapter 26 Merging Covert and Conventional 500
Chapter 27 The Evolving War on Terror 518
Epilogue: Benghazi 541