ISBN-10:
3433031401
ISBN-13:
9783433031407
Pub. Date:
09/06/2016
Publisher:
Wiley
Shallow Geothermal Systems: Recommendations on Design, Construction, Operation and Monitoring / Edition 1

Shallow Geothermal Systems: Recommendations on Design, Construction, Operation and Monitoring / Edition 1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783433031407
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 09/06/2016
Pages: 312
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 8.50(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

The study group Geothermie is a joint study group working since March 2007. Its members are of the section Hydrology of the Deutsche Geologischen Geselschaft - Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (DGGV, formerly DGG) and the section Ingenieurgeologie of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechnik e.V. (DGGT) and the DGGV.

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Table of Contents

Preface IX

Acknowledgements XIII

List of Figures XV

List of Tables XXV

Preamble XXVII

Notation XXIX

1 Introduction 1

2 Principles 5

2.1 Geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical principles 5

2.2 Geothermal principles 12

2.3 Solar energy zone 29

2.4 Geosolar transition zone 31

2.5 Terrestrial zone 35

2.6 Anthropogenic thermal influence 36

2.7 Interaction between geothermal energy systems and the ground 37

2.7.1 Hydrochemical interactions 39

2.7.2 Interactions between geothermal systems and groundwater organisms 39

3 Geothermal energy installations 41

3.1 Closed systems 42

3.1.1 Borehole heat exchangers (downhole heat exchangers) 42

3.1.2 Heat pipes 50

3.1.3 Horizontal collectors 51

3.1.4 Thermal piles and concrete components in contact with the soil 55

3.2 Open systems (direct use of groundwater) 59

3.2.1 Well systems 61

3.2.2 Geothermal energy in conjunction with mines and underground workings 65

3.3 Geothermal energy storage concepts 70

3.3.1 Aquifer thermal energy storage 70

3.3.2 Borehole thermal energy storage 71

3.3.3 Cavern thermal energy storage (CTES) 72

4 Legislative principles 73

4.1 Water legislation 73

4.1.1 European regulations 73

4.1.2 National law 74

4.2 Mining legislation 74

4.3 Natural mineral deposits legislation 75

4.4 Nature and landscape conservation 75

4.4.1 The european ‘natura 2000’ ecological network 75

4.4.2 Nature and landscape conservation 76

4.5 Environmental impact assessment 77

4.6 Non-statutory regulations 77

5 Planning principles 78

5.1 Project workflow 79

5.1.1 Establishing the basis of the project 79

5.1.2 Preliminary design 80

5.1.3 Final design 80

5.1.4 Building permission application 81

5.1.5 Detailed design 81

5.1.6 Preparing for contract award and assisting in award process 82

5.1.7 Supervising and setting up the operation 82

5.2 Surveying requirements for BHE installations 83

5.2.1 Geothermal category 1 83

5.2.2 Exploratory measures for category 1 84

5.2.3 Geothermal category 2 84

5.2.4 Additional exploratory measures for category 2 84

5.2.5 Geothermal category 3 84

5.2.6 Additional exploratory measures for category 3 84

5.3 Models for simulating heat transfer 85

6 Boreholes and completion 91

6.1 Drilling methods 91

6.2 Equipment in boreholes 94

6.3 Boreholes: deviation from the vertical 97

6.4 Geological and hydrogeological influences 104

6.5 Response test methods 109

6.5.1 GRT concepts and measuring principle 110

6.5.2 Evaluation. 111

6.5.3 Thermal resistance of borehole 115

6.5.4 Quality control with the help of the GRT 117

6.5.5 Evaluation of unsteady GRT data 118

6.5.6 Cylinder source method 119

6.5.7 Enhanced geothermal response test 136

7 Design, construction and operation of closed systems 143

7.1 sBHE systems 143

7.1.1 Detailed design 143

7.1.2 Backfilling the annular space 155

7.1.3 Requirements profile for backfill material 158

7.1.4 BHEs that are not fully sealed 177

7.1.5 Pressure and flow tests for BHEs 179

7.1.6 Thermal transfer fluids 190

7.1.7 Horizontal connecting pipes and connection to building services 194

7.1.8 Commissioning, operation and maintenance 196

7.1.9 Documentation 199

7.1.10 Abandoning and decommissioning 200

7.2 Horizontal collectors 201

7.2.1 Planning and designing collector systems 201

7.2.2 Installation of horizontal collectors 205

7.2.3 Installation of geothermal energy baskets 205

7.2.4 Laying the pipes 206

7.2.5 Filling and bleeding 206

7.2.6 Thermal transfer fluids 207

7.2.7 Pressure tests 207

7.2.8 Commissioning 207

7.2.9 Documentation 207

7.2.10 Operation of horizontal collector 209

7.2.11 Effects of operating horizontal collectors 209

7.2.12 Abandoning and decommissioning 210

8 Design, construction and operation of open systems 211

8.1 Well systems 211

8.1.1 Detailed design 218

8.1.2 Site supervision, quality assurance, documentation 220

8.1.3 Pumping and well tests 220

8.1.4 Commissioning, operation and maintenance 220

8.1.5 Hydrochemical and microbiological influences 225

8.1.6 Documentation 230

8.1.7 Abandoning and decommissioning 230

8.1.8 Practical example of a well system 230

8.2 Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) 235

9 Risk potential 236

9.1 The 5-M method 236

9.1.1 Man 236

9.1.2 Method 237

9.1.3 Materials 238

9.1.4 Machines 239

9.1.5 Medium 239

9.1.6 Summary 240

9.2 Geological risks 241

9.2.1 Rocks with swelling or subsidence potential 241

9.2.2 Soluble rocks 241

9.2.3 Overconsolidated rocks and rocks susceptible to pore water pressure 242

9.2.4 Tectonics 242

9.2.5 Mass movements 243

9.2.6 Collapses, subsidence and mining subsidence 243

9.2.7 Gas escape 243

9.3 Hydrogeological risks 244

9.3.1 Confined and artesian groundwater 244

9.3.2 Multi-layer groundwater systems 245

9.3.3 Hydrochemical gradients 245

9.3.4 Venting 246

9.3.5 Water quality 246

9.4 Environmental risks 247

9.4.1 Legacy pollution and deposits 247

9.4.2 Mining, mining damage 248

9.5 Risks during BHE installation 248

9.6 Operational risks 249

Literature 253

Glossary 264

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