Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe: US Technological Collaboration and Nonproliferation

Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe: US Technological Collaboration and Nonproliferation

by John Krige

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Overview

How America used its technological leadership in the 1950s and the 1960s to foster European collaboration and curb nuclear proliferation, with varying degrees of success.

In the 1950s and the 1960s, U. S. administrations were determined to prevent Western European countries from developing independent national nuclear weapons programs. To do so, the United States attempted to use its technological pre-eminence as a tool of “soft power” to steer Western European technological choices toward the peaceful uses of the atom and of space, encouraging options that fostered collaboration, promoted nonproliferation, and defused challenges to U. S. technological superiority. In Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe , John Krige describes these efforts and the varying degrees of success they achieved.

Krige explains that the pursuit of scientific and technological leadership, galvanized by America's Cold War competition with the Soviet Union, was also usedfor techno-politicalcollaboration with major allies. He examines a series of multinational arrangements involving shared technological platforms and aimed at curbing nuclear proliferation, and he describes the roles of the Department of State, the Atomic Energy Commission, and NASA. To their dismay, these agencies discovered that the use of technology as an instrument of soft power was seriously circumscribed, by internal divisions within successive administrations and by external opposition from European countries. It was successful, Krige argues, only when technological leadership was embedded in a web of supportive “harder” power structures.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780262034777
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 07/22/2016
Series: Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 240
Product dimensions: 1.00(w) x 2.00(h) x 0.50(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

John Krige is Kranzberg Professor in the School of History, Technology, and Sociology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is the author of American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe and the coeditor of Science and Technology in the Global Cold War , both published by the MIT Press.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments ix

Primary Sources xi

Introduction 1

1 The United States and the Promotion of Euratom, 1955-56: Integration as an Instrument of Nuclear Non-Proliferation 17

2 The United States and Euratom, 1957-58: Constructing a Joint Program for Nuclear Power 49

3 "A Substantial Sop," or "Positive Disarmament"? Johnson, Erhard, and Bilateral Space Collaboration 79

4 Integration and the Non-Proliferation of Ballistic Missiles: The United States, the United Kingdom, and ELDO, 1966 97

5 Classification, Collaboration, and Competition: US-UK Relationships in Gas-Centrifuge Uranium Enrichment in the 1960s 119

Conclusion 149

Notes 169

Bibliography 205

Index 217

What People are Saying About This

Naomi Oreskes

A remarkable account of an important but little known Cold War story: how the United States tried, with varying degrees of success, to use technological collaboration in nuclear power and space technology to further political goals. I learned a great deal by reading it, including that the US nuclear power industry has been troubled its entire life, and that there is a long history of the US over-estimating its technological leadership and placing exaggerated faith in technological solutions to political problems.

Leopoldo Nuti

Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe is a most useful contribution to our understanding of the complex interaction between science and international relations. By carefully investigating how the US tried to control the flow of technological information to shape the construction of Europe, John Krige has offered a very convincing analysis which will be mandatory reading for scholars of US foreign policy, historians of European integration, and all those who are interested in the study of nuclear nonproliferation.

From the Publisher

A remarkable account of an important but little known Cold War story: how the United States tried, with varying degrees of success, to use technological collaboration in nuclear power and space technology to further political goals. I learned a great deal by reading it, including that the US nuclear power industry has been troubled its entire life, and that there is a long history of the US over-estimating its technological leadership and placing exaggerated faith in technological solutions to political problems.

Naomi Oreskes , Professor of the History of Science, Harvard University

Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe is a most useful contribution to our understanding of the complex interaction between science and international relations. By carefully investigating how the US tried to control the flow of technological information to shape the construction of Europe, John Krige has offered a very convincing analysis which will be mandatory reading for scholars of US foreign policy, historians of European integration, and all those who are interested in the study of nuclear nonproliferation.

Leopoldo Nuti , Professor of International History, Roma Tre University

John Krige's new book offers a fascinating account of the complex connections between American soft power, US-led technological collaboration in atomic energy, European integration, and nuclear nonproliferation. As such, it touches upon some of the most pressing concerns of the Western alliance during the Cold War and beyond.

Kiran Klaus Patel , Jean Monnet Chair for European and Global History, Maastricht University

Endorsement

John Krige's new book offers a fascinating account of the complex connections between American soft power, US-led technological collaboration in atomic energy, European integration, and nuclear nonproliferation. As such, it touches upon some of the most pressing concerns of the Western alliance during the Cold War and beyond.

Kiran Klaus Patel, Jean Monnet Chair for European and Global History, Maastricht University

Kiran Klaus Patel

John Krige's new book offers a fascinating account of the complex connections between American soft power, US-led technological collaboration in atomic energy, European integration, and nuclear nonproliferation. As such, it touches upon some of the most pressing concerns of the Western alliance during the Cold War and beyond.

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