The Sirex Woodwasp and its Fungal Symbiont:: Research and Management of a Worldwide Invasive Pest

The Sirex Woodwasp and its Fungal Symbiont:: Research and Management of a Worldwide Invasive Pest

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Overview

The Sirex woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, is the most important invasive alien insect pest of Pinus plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. It now also threatens pines in North America. This book brings together the worldwide knowledge of researchers from Universities and Government institutions, as well as forest industry practitioners that have worked on the pest. Importantly, it is the first comprehensive treatment of the subject since S. noctilio was discovered outside its native range around 1900. The book covers all aspects of the biology and management of S. noctilio, including aspects of the insects’ taxonomy, general life history, host-plant relationships, population dynamics, chemical ecology and symbiosis with the fungus Amylostereum areolatum. The book also contains a comprehensive synthesis of the history and current status of the pest and worldwide efforts to control it, including biological control, silviculture and quarantine.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789401783415
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 11/11/2014
Edition description: 2012
Pages: 301
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

Preface Dedication

1.0 Sirex systematics; problems and solutions Henri Goulet
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Important issues for solving identification problems
1.2.1 Ovipositor morphology
1.2.2 Mihondrial DNA
1.2.3 Collections
1.3 Diversity and biogeographic coverage
1.4 Morphological characters used to recognize species
1.4.1 Ovipositor characters
1.4.2 Other characters

2.0 Life history and biology of Sirex noctilio Kathleen Ryan and Brett P Hurley
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Insect-fungus complex
2.3 The life history of Sirex noctilio
2.4 Host selection and susceptibility
2.5 Host Records
2.6 Factors influencing population dynamics
2.6.1 Potential fecundity
2.6.2 Reproductive potential
2.6.3 Adult size
2.6.4 Sex-ratio
2.6.5 Natural enemies
2.7 Conclusions

3.0 Susceptibility and response of pines to Sirex noctilio John M Bordeaux and Jeffrey FD Dean
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Factors contributing to tree susceptibility
3.3 Tree responses to Sirex noctilio mucus
3.4 Tree responses to Amylostereum areolatum
3.5 General responses to Sirex attack
3.6 Reducing tree susceptibility

4.0 The population dynamics of Sirex noctilio F.: the influence of diapause, spatial aggregation and flight potential on woodwasp outbreaks and spread Juan C Corley and José M Villacide
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Pine plantations and Sirex noctilio in Patagonia
4.3 Life cycle and adult emergence patterns
4.4 Spatial dynamics of woodwasp populations at a stand scale
4.5 Flight potential of Sirex noctilio males and females
4.6 Conclusions

5.0 The woodwasp Sirex noctilio and its associated fungus Amylostereum areolatum in Europe Beat Wermelinger and Iben M Thomsen
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Biology of Sirex noctilio
5.3 Natural enemies
5.4 Ecology of the Amylostereum fungal symbionts
5.5 Relationships between S. noctilio attack and host quality
5.6 Economic significance of S. noctilio in Europe

6.0 The genetics of Amylostereum species associated with Siricids Magriet van der Nest, Rimvys Vasaitis, Jan Stenlid, Brenda D Wingfield, Michael J Wingfield and Bernard Slippers
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Systematics and identification
6.3 Symbiotic specificity
6.4 Mode of reproduction
6.5 Vegetative incompatibility and population diversity studies
6.6 Conclusions and future prospects

7.0 Siricid woodwasps and their fungal symbionts in Asia, specifically those occurring in Japan Masanobu Tabata, Hiroaki Miyata and Kaoru Maeto
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Symbiosis between woodwasps and fungi
7.3 Molecular phylogeny of fungal symbionts
7.4 Life-cycle and host interaction of woodwasps

8.0 Parasitoids in the management of Sirex: Looking back and looking ahead E Alan Cameron
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Use of parasitoids as biological control agents
8.2.1 New Zealand and Australia
8.2.2 South America
8.2.3 South Africa
8.3 Conclusions

9.0 Factors affecting the efficacy of Deladenus siricidicola in biological control systems Bernard Slippers, Brett P Hurley, X Osmond Mlonyeni, Peter de Groot and Michael J Wingfield
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Rearing, handling and storage
9.3 Evolution of nematode virulence and wasp resistance
9.4 Introduction history and genetic diversity
9.5 Interaction specificity – Amylostereum and Sirex
9.6 Variable environmental factors
9.7 Conclusions

10.0 Ecological considerations in using Deladenus siricidicola for the biological control of Sirex noctilio in North America David W Williams, Kelley E Zylstra and Victor C Mastro10.1 Introduction
10.2 Ecological factors in North America affecting the biological control program
10.2.1 Climate
10.2.2 The North American nematode
10.3 Possible effects of the biological control program on non-target pine insects in North America
10.3.1 North American Siricids as potential hosts
10.3.2 Questions on nontarget effects on North American siricids
10.4 Conclusions and future directions

11.0 The chemical ecology of Sirex noctilio Damon J Crook, Katalin Böröczky, Kelley E Zylstra, Victor C Mastro and James H Tumlinson
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Sirex noctilio and stressed trees
11.3 Pine tree volatile composition of healthy and girdled trees
11.4 Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of S. noctilio
11.5 Recent lure trials based on GC and GC-EAD results
11.6 Antennal physiology
11.7 Pheromones
11.8 Conclusions

12.0 The use of kairomone lures for the detection of Sirex noctilio in susceptible Pinus radiata plantations in Australia Richard Bashford and John L Madden Introduction
12.1 Identification and testing of Pinus radiata stem volatiles
12.2 Development of a kairomone baited trap system in Tasmania
12.3 Integration of a static trap module into the current Australian NSCC working procedures for the control of Sirex noctilio
12.4 Conclusions

13.0 The Sirex woodwasp in New Zealand: History and current status John Bain, Stephanie L Sopow and Lindsay S Bulman
13.1 Introduction
13.2 History of Sirex in New Zealand
13.3 Use of biological control agents
13.4 Pest status of Sirex noctilio in New Zealand 1980-2010
13.5 Conclusions

14.0 Sirex woodwasp in Australia: current management strategies, research and emerging issues Angus J Carnegie and Richard Bashford
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Control and management
14.2.1 Australian Sirex biological control unit
14.2.2 Current operational management
14.3 Current issues and research
14.3.1 Reduced nematode parasitism of S. noctilio
14.3.2 Ips grandicollis attacking Sirex trap trees
14.3.3 Optimise timing of nematode inoculation of trap trees
14.3.4 Trap tree establishment techniques
14.3.5 Storage life of nematodes
14.3.6 Spread of Sirex into subtropical Australia
14.3.7 Future research
14.4 conclusions

15.0 The ecology and biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in Patagonia, Argentina Paula Klasmer and Eduardo Botto
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Establishment, spread and distribution of Sirex noctilio in Argentina
15.3 Management strategies for Sirex noctilio in Patagonia
15.3.1 Monitoring
15.3.2 Biological control with parasitoids
15.3.3 Biological control with entomophagous nematodes
15.4 Summary and Conclusions

16.0 The woodwasp Sirex noctilio in Brazil: monitoring and control Edson T Iede, Susete do R C Penteado and Wilson R Filho
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Biology and ecology of Sirex noctilio
16.3 The national program of woodwasp control in Brazil
16.3.1 Prevention strategies
16.3.2 Early detection and monitoring of S. noctilio
16.3.3 Biological control
16.3.4 Quarantine strategies16.4 General recommendations

17.0 Surveillance and control of the Sirex woodwasp: The Chilean experience Marcos Beèche, Dolly Lanfranco, Mario Zapata and Cecilia Ruiz
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Forest health in Chile
17.3 Sirex noctilio: a remarkable taxon
17.4 Surveillance of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.4.1 Surveillance program methods
17.4.2 Distribution of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5 Control of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5.1 Quarantine control
17.5.2 Sanitation
17.5.3 Biological control17.6 Summary and conclusions

18.0 The control of the Sirex woodwasp in diverse environments: The South African experience Brett P Hurley, Philip Croft, Marcel Verleur, Michael J Wingfield and Bernard Slippers
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Pine forestry in South Africa
18.3 Introduction and spread of S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4 Efforts to control S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4.1 Biological control with parasitic nematodes
18.4.2 Biological control with parasitic wasps
18.4.3 Plantation management
18.4.4 Monitoring of Sirex noctilio
18.5 Conclusions

19.0 Sirex, surveys and management: Challenges of having Sirex noctilio in North America Kevin J Dodds and Peter de Groot
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Detection in North America
19.2.1 Agencies involved in detection and delimitation efforts in Canada and the United States
19.2.2 Annual surveys
19.3 North American forests at risk
19.4 Survey challenges in North America
19.4.1 Logistical issues
19.4.2 Biological issues
19.5 Management challenges in North America
19.5.1 Silviculture
19.5.2 Biological control
19.6 Conclusions

20.0 Looking into the future of Sirex research and management Bernard Slippers and Michael J Wingfield

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Ecological factors in North America affecting the biological control program
10.2.1 Climate
10.2.2 The North American nematode
10.3 Possible effects of the biological control program on non-target pine insects in North America
10.3.1 North American Siricids as potential hosts
10.3.2 Questions on nontarget effects on North American siricids
10.4 Conclusions and future directions

11.0 The chemical ecology of Sirex noctilio Damon J Crook, Katalin Böröczky, Kelley E Zylstra, Victor C Mastro and James H Tumlinson
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Sirex noctilio and stressed trees
11.3 Pine tree volatile composition of healthy and girdled trees
11.4 Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of S. noctilio
11.5 Recent lure trials based on GC and GC-EAD results
11.6 Antennal physiology
11.7 Pheromones
11.8 Conclusions

12.0 The use of kairomone lures for the detection of Sirex noctilio in susceptible Pinus radiata plantations in Australia Richard Bashford and John L Madden Introduction
12.1 Identification and testing of Pinus radiata stem volatiles
12.2 Development of a kairomone baited trap system in Tasmania
12.3 Integration of a static trap module into the current Australian NSCC working procedures for the control of Sirex noctilio
12.4 Conclusions

13.0 The Sirex woodwasp in New Zealand: History and current status John Bain, Stephanie L Sopow and Lindsay S Bulman
13.1 Introduction
13.2 History of Sirex in New Zealand
13.3 Use of biological control agents
13.4 Pest status of Sirex noctilio in New Zealand 1980-2010
13.5 Conclusions

14.0 Sirex woodwasp in Australia: current management strategies, research and emerging issues Angus J Carnegie and Richard Bashford
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Control and management
14.2.1 Australian Sirex biological control unit
14.2.2 Current operational management
14.3 Current issues and research
14.3.1 Reduced nematode parasitism of S. noctilio
14.3.2 Ips grandicollis attacking Sirex trap trees
14.3.3 Optimise timing of nematode inoculation of trap trees
14.3.4 Trap tree establishment techniques
14.3.5 Storage life of nematodes
14.3.6 Spread of Sirex into subtropical Australia
14.3.7 Future research
14.4 conclusions

15.0 The ecology and biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in Patagonia, Argentina Paula Klasmer and Eduardo Botto
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Establishment, spread and distribution of Sirex noctilio in Argentina
15.3 Management strategies for Sirex noctilio in Patagonia
15.3.1 Monitoring
15.3.2 Biological control with parasitoids
15.3.3 Biological control with entomophagous nematodes
15.4 Summary and Conclusions

16.0 The woodwasp Sirex noctilio in Brazil: monitoring and control Edson T Iede, Susete do R C Penteado and Wilson R Filho
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Biology and ecology of Sirex noctilio
16.3 The national program of woodwasp control in Brazil
16.3.1 Prevention strategies
16.3.2 Early detection and monitoring of S. noctilio
16.3.3 Biological control
16.3.4 Quarantine strategies16.4 General recommendations

17.0 Surveillance and control of the Sirex woodwasp: The Chilean experience Marcos Beèche, Dolly Lanfranco, Mario Zapata and Cecilia Ruiz
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Forest health in Chile
17.3 Sirex noctilio: a remarkable taxon
17.4 Surveillance of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.4.1 Surveillance program methods
17.4.2 Distribution of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5 Control of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5.1 Quarantine control
17.5.2 Sanitation
17.5.3 Biological control17.6 Summary and conclusions

18.0 The control of the Sirex woodwasp in diverse environments: The South African experience Brett P Hurley, Philip Croft, Marcel Verleur, Michael J Wingfield and Bernard Slippers
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Pine forestry in South Africa
18.3 Introduction and spread of S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4 Efforts to control S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4.1 Biological control with parasitic nematodes
18.4.2 Biological control with parasitic wasps
18.4.3 Plantation management
18.4.4 Monitoring of Sirex noctilio
18.5 Conclusions

19.0 Sirex, surveys and management: Challenges of having Sirex noctilio in North America Kevin J Dodds and Peter de Groot
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Detection in North America
19.2.1 Agencies involved in detection and delimitation efforts in Canada and the United States
19.2.2 Annual surveys
19.3 North American forests at risk
19.4 Survey challenges in North America
19.4.1 Logistical issues
19.4.2 Biological issues
19.5 Management challenges in North America
19.5.1 Silviculture
19.5.2 Biological control
19.6 Conclusions

20.0 Looking into the future of Sirex research and management Bernard Slippers and Michael J Wingfield

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Ecological factors in North America affecting the biological control program
10.2.1 Climate
10.2.2 The North American nematode
10.3 Possible effects of the biological control program on non-target pine insects in North America
10.3.1 North American Siricids as potential hosts
10.3.2 Questions on nontarget effects on North American siricids
10.4 Conclusions and future directions

11.0 The chemical ecology of Sirex noctilio Damon J Crook, Katalin Böröczky, Kelley E Zylstra, Victor C Mastro and James H Tumlinson
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Sirex noctilio and stressed trees
11.3 Pine tree volatile composition of healthy and girdled trees
11.4 Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of S. noctilio
11.5 Recent lure trials based on GC and GC-EAD results
11.6 Antennal physiology
11.7 Pheromones
11.8 Conclusions

12.0 The use of kairomone lures for the detection of Sirex noctilio in susceptible Pinus radiata plantations in Australia Richard Bashford and John L Madden Introduction
12.1 Identification and testing of Pinus radiata stem volatiles
12.2 Development of a kairomone baited trap system in Tasmania
12.3 Integration of a static trap module into the current Australian NSCC working procedures for the control of Sirex noctilio
12.4 Conclusions

13.0 The Sirex woodwasp in New Zealand: History and current status John Bain, Stephanie L Sopow and Lindsay S Bulman
13.1 Introduction
13.2 History of Sirex in New Zealand
13.3 Use of biological control agents
13.4 Pest status of Sirex noctilio in New Zealand 1980-2010
13.5 Conclusions

14.0 Sirex woodwasp in Australia: current management strategies, research and emerging issues Angus J Carnegie and Richard Bashford
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Control and management
14.2.1 Australian Sirex biological control unit
14.2.2 Current operational management
14.3 Current issues and research
14.3.1 Reduced nematode parasitism of S. noctilio
14.3.2 Ips grandicollis attacking Sirex trap trees
14.3.3 Optimise timing of nematode inoculation of trap trees
14.3.4 Trap tree establishment techniques
14.3.5 Storage life of nematodes
14.3.6 Spread of Sirex into subtropical Australia
14.3.7 Future research
14.4 conclusions

15.0 The ecology and biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in Patagonia, Argentina Paula Klasmer and Eduardo Botto
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Establishment, spread and distribution of Sirex noctilio in Argentina
15.3 Management strategies for Sirex noctilio in Patagonia
15.3.1 Monitoring
15.3.2 Biological control with parasitoids
15.3.3 Biological control with entomophagous nematodes
15.4 Summary and Conclusions

16.0 The woodwasp Sirex noctilio in Brazil: monitoring and control Edson T Iede, Susete do R C Penteado and Wilson R Filho
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Biology and ecology of Sirex noctilio
16.3 The national program of woodwasp control in Brazil
16.3.1 Prevention strategies
16.3.2 Early detection and monitoring of S. noctilio
16.3.3 Biological control
16.3.4 Quarantine strategies16.4 General recommendations

17.0 Surveillance and control of the Sirex woodwasp: The Chilean experience Marcos Beèche, Dolly Lanfranco, Mario Zapata and Cecilia Ruiz
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Forest health in Chile
17.3 Sirex noctilio: a remarkable taxon
17.4 Surveillance of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.4.1 Surveillance program methods
17.4.2 Distribution of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5 Control of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5.1 Quarantine control
17.5.2 Sanitation
17.5.3 Biological control17.6 Summary and conclusions

18.0 The control of the Sirex woodwasp in diverse environments: The South African experience Brett P Hurley, Philip Croft, Marcel Verleur, Michael J Wingfield and Bernard Slippers
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Pine forestry in South Africa
18.3 Introduction and spread of S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4 Efforts to control S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4.1 Biological control with parasitic nematodes
18.4.2 Biological control with parasitic wasps
18.4.3 Plantation management
18.4.4 Monitoring of Sirex noctilio
18.5 Conclusions

19.0 Sirex, surveys and management: Challenges of having Sirex noctilio in North America Kevin J Dodds and Peter de Groot
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Detection in North America
19.2.1 Agencies involved in detection and delimitation efforts in Canada and the United States
19.2.2 Annual surveys
19.3 North American forests at risk
19.4 Survey challenges in North America
19.4.1 Logistical issues
19.4.2 Biological issues
19.5 Management challenges in North America
19.5.1 Silviculture
19.5.2 Biological control
19.6 Conclusions

20.0 Looking into the future of Sirex research and management Bernard Slippers and Michael J Wingfield

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Ecological factors in North America affecting the biological control program
10.2.1 Climate
10.2.2 The North American nematode
10.3 Possible effects of the biological control program on non-target pine insects in North America
10.3.1 North American Siricids as potential hosts
10.3.2 Questions on nontarget effects on North American siricids
10.4 Conclusions and future directions

11.0 The chemical ecology of Sirex noctilio Damon J Crook, Katalin Böröczky, Kelley E Zylstra, Victor C Mastro and James H Tumlinson
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Sirex noctilio and stressed trees
11.3 Pine tree volatile composition of healthy and girdled trees
11.4 Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of S. noctilio
11.5 Recent lure trials based on GC and GC-EAD results
11.6 Antennal physiology
11.7 Pheromones
11.8 Conclusions

12.0 The use of kairomone lures for the detection of Sirex noctilio in susceptible Pinus radiata plantations in Australia Richard Bashford and John L Madden Introduction
12.1 Identification and testing of Pinus radiata stem volatiles
12.2 Development of a kairomone baited trap system in Tasmania
12.3 Integration of a static trap module into the current Australian NSCC working procedures for the control of Sirex noctilio
12.4 Conclusions

13.0 The Sirex woodwasp in New Zealand: History and current status John Bain, Stephanie L Sopow and Lindsay S Bulman
13.1 Introduction
13.2 History of Sirex in New Zealand
13.3 Use of biological control agents
13.4 Pest status of Sirex noctilio in New Zealand 1980-2010
13.5 Conclusions

14.0 Sirex woodwasp in Australia: current management strategies, research and emerging issues Angus J Carnegie and Richard Bashford
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Control and management
14.2.1 Australian Sirex biological control unit
14.2.2 Current operational management
14.3 Current issues and research
14.3.1 Reduced nematode parasitism of S. noctilio
14.3.2 Ips grandicollis attacking Sirex trap trees
14.3.3 Optimise timing of nematode inoculation of trap trees
14.3.4 Trap tree establishment techniques
14.3.5 Storage life of nematodes
14.3.6 Spread of Sirex into subtropical Australia
14.3.7 Future research
14.4 conclusions

15.0 The ecology and biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in Patagonia, Argentina Paula Klasmer and Eduardo Botto
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Establishment, spread and distribution of Sirex noctilio in Argentina
15.3 Management strategies for Sirex noctilio in Patagonia
15.3.1 Monitoring
15.3.2 Biological control with parasitoids
15.3.3 Biological control with entomophagous nematodes
15.4 Summary and Conclusions

16.0 The woodwasp Sirex noctilio in Brazil: monitoring and control Edson T Iede, Susete do R C Penteado and Wilson R Filho
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Biology and ecology of Sirex noctilio
16.3 The national program of woodwasp control in Brazil
16.3.1 Prevention strategies
16.3.2 Early detection and monitoring of S. noctilio
16.3.3 Biological control
16.3.4 Quarantine strategies16.4 General recommendations

17.0 Surveillance and control of the Sirex woodwasp: The Chilean experience Marcos Beèche, Dolly Lanfranco, Mario Zapata and Cecilia Ruiz
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Forest health in Chile
17.3 Sirex noctilio: a remarkable taxon
17.4 Surveillance of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.4.1 Surveillance program methods
17.4.2 Distribution of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5 Control of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5.1 Quarantine control
17.5.2 Sanitation
17.5.3 Biological control17.6 Summary and conclusions

18.0 The control of the Sirex woodwasp in diverse environments: The South African experience Brett P Hurley, Philip Croft, Marcel Verleur, Michael J Wingfield and Bernard Slippers
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Pine forestry in South Africa
18.3 Introduction and spread of S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4 Efforts to control S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4.1 Biological control with parasitic nematodes
18.4.2 Biological control with parasitic wasps
18.4.3 Plantation management
18.4.4 Monitoring of Sirex noctilio
18.5 Conclusions

19.0 Sirex, surveys and management: Challenges of having Sirex noctilio in North America Kevin J Dodds and Peter de Groot
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Detection in North America
19.2.1 Agencies involved in detection and delimitation efforts in Canada and the United States
19.2.2 Annual surveys
19.3 North American forests at risk
19.4 Survey challenges in North America
19.4.1 Logistical issues
19.4.2 Biological issues
19.5 Management challenges in North America
19.5.1 Silviculture
19.5.2 Biological control
19.6 Conclusions

20.0 Looking into the future of Sirex research and management Bernard Slippers and Michael J Wingfield

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Ecological factors in North America affecting the biological control program
10.2.1 Climate
10.2.2 The North American nematode
10.3 Possible effects of the biological control program on non-target pine insects in North America
10.3.1 North American Siricids as potential hosts
10.3.2 Questions on nontarget effects on North American siricids
10.4 Conclusions and future directions

11.0 The chemical ecology of Sirex noctilio Damon J Crook, Katalin Böröczky, Kelley E Zylstra, Victor C Mastro and James H Tumlinson
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Sirex noctilio and stressed trees
11.3 Pine tree volatile composition of healthy and girdled trees
11.4 Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of S. noctilio
11.5 Recent lure trials based on GC and GC-EAD results
11.6 Antennal physiology
11.7 Pheromones
11.8 Conclusions

12.0 The use of kairomone lures for the detection of Sirex noctilio in susceptible Pinus radiata plantations in Australia Richard Bashford and John L Madden Introduction
12.1 Identification and testing of Pinus radiata stem volatiles
12.2 Development of a kairomone baited trap system in Tasmania
12.3 Integration of a static trap module into the current Australian NSCC working procedures for the control of Sirex noctilio
12.4 Conclusions

13.0 The Sirex woodwasp in New Zealand: History and current status John Bain, Stephanie L Sopow and Lindsay S Bulman
13.1 Introduction
13.2 History of Sirex in New Zealand
13.3 Use of biological control agents
13.4 Pest status of Sirex noctilio in New Zealand 1980-2010
13.5 Conclusions

14.0 Sirex woodwasp in Australia: current management strategies, research and emerging issues Angus J Carnegie and Richard Bashford
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Control and management
14.2.1 Australian Sirex biological control unit
14.2.2 Current operational management
14.3 Current issues and research
14.3.1 Reduced nematode parasitism of S. noctilio
14.3.2 Ips grandicollis attacking Sirex trap trees
14.3.3 Optimise timing of nematode inoculation of trap trees
14.3.4 Trap tree establishment techniques
14.3.5 Storage life of nematodes
14.3.6 Spread of Sirex into subtropical Australia
14.3.7 Future research
14.4 conclusions

15.0 The ecology and biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in Patagonia, Argentina Paula Klasmer and Eduardo Botto
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Establishment, spread and distribution of Sirex noctilio in Argentina
15.3 Management strategies for Sirex noctilio in Patagonia
15.3.1 Monitoring
15.3.2 Biological control with parasitoids
15.3.3 Biological control with entomophagous nematodes
15.4 Summary and Conclusions

16.0 The woodwasp Sirex noctilio in Brazil: monitoring and control Edson T Iede, Susete do R C Penteado and Wilson R Filho
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Biology and ecology of Sirex noctilio
16.3 The national program of woodwasp control in Brazil
16.3.1 Prevention strategies
16.3.2 Early detection and monitoring of S. noctilio
16.3.3 Biological control
16.3.4 Quarantine strategies16.4 General recommendations

17.0 Surveillance and control of the Sirex woodwasp: The Chilean experience Marcos Beèche, Dolly Lanfranco, Mario Zapata and Cecilia Ruiz
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Forest health in Chile
17.3 Sirex noctilio: a remarkable taxon
17.4 Surveillance of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.4.1 Surveillance program methods
17.4.2 Distribution of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5 Control of Sirex noctilio in Chile
17.5.1 Quarantine control
17.5.2 Sanitation
17.5.3 Biological control17.6 Summary and conclusions

18.0 The control of the Sirex woodwasp in diverse environments: The South African experience Brett P Hurley, Philip Croft, Marcel Verleur, Michael J Wingfield and Bernard Slippers
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Pine forestry in South Africa
18.3 Introduction and spread of S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4 Efforts to control S. noctilio in South Africa
18.4.1 Biological control with parasitic nematodes
18.4.2 Biological control with parasitic wasps
18.4.3 Plantation management
18.4.4 Monitoring of Sirex noctilio
18.5 Conclusions

19.0 Sirex, surveys and management: Challenges of having Sirex noctilio in North America Kevin J Dodds and Peter de Groot
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Detection in North America
19.2.1 Agencies involved in detection and delimitation efforts in Canada and the United States
19.2.2 Annual surveys
19.3 North American forests at risk
19.4 Survey challenges in North America
19.4.1 Logistical issues
19.4.2 Biological issues
19.5 Management challenges in North America
19.5.1 Silviculture
19.5.2 Biological control
19.6 Conclusions

20.0 Sirex research and management: Future prospects Bernard Slippers and Michael J Wingfield
20.1Introduction
20.2Questions relating to the natural history of Siricids and their symbionts
20.3Continued risk and challenges facing management
20.4New technologies and unexplored opportunities Conclusions

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