Slipper Orchids of Vietnam

Slipper Orchids of Vietnam


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Vietnam has a remarkable and diverse orchid flora that is still being explored and described. Orchids are the largest family in the flora and may exceed 1000 species with more being described every year as remoter areas are explored. They are found in every habitat from the coastal mangrove forests to the highest mountain peaks. The slipper orchids, a small but showy part of the flora, epitomise the exuberance of Vietnam's orchids and, at the same time, emphasise their vulnerability. Although almost half have been discovered within the past ten years, many of them are already threatened with extinction by the combined problems of forest destruction and commercial collecting. This book details the geology, climate and vegetation of Vietnam in all its remarkable diversity. The main text provides comprehensive accounts of the history, nomenclature and relationships of each of the 22 slipper orchid species and natural hybrids found within the country. It also provides the first detailed accounts of their habitats, biology and ecology. On a more urgent note it also highlights the imminent threat of extinction faced by many of them. Further urgent measures are necessary both within Vietnam and abroad to protect what remains. The results of the authors' field studies, detailed here for the first time in a popular book, provide a unique insight into the rich flora of Vietnam where so many of the orchids are found. This book is a significant contribution to our understanding of plant diversity in Vietnam and to the threats to it. The richness of Vietnam's biological diversity is only now becoming apparent. This book will enthral the reader with its descriptions of Vietnam, its unique environment, its rich flora and its endemic plants. It will also serve to alert all of us to the dangers that threaten its unique heritage.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780881925920
Publisher: Timber Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 08/01/2003
Pages: 327
Product dimensions: 7.52(w) x 10.28(h) x 1.13(d)

Table of Contents

Part I.Vietnam1
Geological History3
Northeastern montane region5
Northwestern montane region6
Truong Son Range region6
Coastal plains8
Alluvial valleys of the Me Cong and Song Hong Rivers8
Climate Zones8
Monsoon tropical climate with cold winter and summer rains9
Monsoon tropical climate with cold winter and summer-autumn rains11
Monsoon tropical climate with warm winter and summer-autumn-winter rains11
Monsoon tropical climate with warm winter and autumn-winter rains13
Monsoon tropical climate with warm winter and summer rains13
Monsoon sub-equatorial climate with summer rains14
Monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains14
Flora of Vietnam15
Main patterns of vegetation18
Evergreen broad-leaved plateau forests on alkaline soils19
Evergreen and semi-deciduous forests of limestone mountains21
Evergreen lowland forests on acidic substrates between sea level and 1000 m28
Evergreen montane and highland forests on acidic substrates between 1000-3000 m33
Semi-deciduous and deciduous dry lowland forests between sea level and 500 (700) m41
Coastal vegetation, lowland wetlands and mangrove45
Secondary and agricultural plant communities45
Part II.Slipper Orchids55
What is a slipper orchid?55
Origin and affinities of slipper orchids55
Life history65
Natural hybridization69
Geographical distribution74
Infrageneric classification of Paphiopedilum79
Part III.Taxonomy of Vietnamese Slipper Orchids83
The genus Paphiopedilum85
Key to the Vietnamese species of Paphiopedilum85
Paphiopedilum subgen. Parvisepalum89
1.P. delenatii Guillaum89
2.P. vietnamense Gruss & Perner96
3.P. malipoense S.C.Chen & Z.H.Tsi104
4.P. micranthum T.Tang & F.T.Wang120
5.P. hangianum Perner & Gruss131
6.P. emersonii Koop. & P.J.Cribb140
Paphiopedilum subgen. Brachypetalum145
7.P. concolor (Bateman) Pfitzer145
Paphiopedilum subgen. Paphiopedilum155
8.P. hirsutissimum (Lindl. ex Hook.) Stein156
9.P. barbigerum T.Tang & F.T.Wang170
10.P. tranlienianum Gruss & Perner175
11.P. helenae Aver.182
12.P. henryanum Braem191
13.P. gratrixianum (Masters) Rolfe199
14.P. villosum (Lindl.) Stein208
15.P. appletonianum (Gower) Rolfe218
16.P. callosum (Rchb.f.) Stein230
17.P. purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein236
18.P. dianthum T.Tang & F.T.Wang244
Natural interspecific Paphiopedilum hybrids reported from Vietnam253
19.P. x affine De Wild.253
20.P. x aspersum Aver.254
21.P. x dalatense Aver.255
22.P. x herrmannii Fuchs & Reisinger259
Part IV.Conservation265
The decline and extinction of slipper orchids in the wild265
The future?274
Literature Cited285
Index of Scientific Names295

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