Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids: Applications to Energy Storage and Environmental Science

Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids: Applications to Energy Storage and Environmental Science

by Yuri B. Melnichenko

Hardcover(1st ed. 2016)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783319011035
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Publication date: 09/29/2015
Edition description: 1st ed. 2016
Pages: 314
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x (d)

About the Author

Yuri B. Melnichenko was educated as a physicist in the USSR, receiving his Ph.D. from Kiev State University (1984) and later a prestigious Doctor of Physics and Mathematics degree from the Academy of Sciences of USSR (1992). He is a Humboldt Foundation Fellow (1993, Germany), and a recipient of Max Planck Society award (1994, Germany). Visiting researcher, the Max Planck Institut für Polymerforschung, (Mainz, Germany) in 1993 – 1995. Since 1995 - a research staff member, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He conducts research in the field of soft matter materials and confined fluids using small-angle and quasi-elastic neutron scattering techniques and is an author and co-author of more than 160 peer reviewed scientific articles. Co-Editor of a book "Computational Studies, Nanotechnology, and Solution Thermodynamics of Polymer Systems" (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2001). In 2005 elected a Fellow of American Physical Society for “Significant contribution to the fundamental science underlying universal aspects of macromolecules in polymer solutions, supercritical mixtures and polymer blends”. Most recent interests are in the area of high pressure adsorption and dynamics of fluids confined in pores of engineered and natural porous materials.

Table of Contents

1. Basic definitions and essential concepts of small-angle scattering 1.1 Interaction of x-rays and neutrons with matter; scattering length 1.2 Scattering vector and scattering cross section 1.3 Scattering length density and contrast 1.4 Absorption and transmission of x-ray and neutron beams 1.5 Form and structure factors 1.6 Complementarity of neutron and x-ray scattering techniques 2. Radiation sources 2.1 Constant flux reactors 2.2 Spallation neutron sources 2.3 Photon sources 3. Constant flux and time-of-flight instrumentation 3.1 General Purpose SANS instrument at HFIR, ORNL 3.2 Extended Q SANS instrument at SNS, ORNL 3.3 Perfect crystal USANS instrument at NIST 3.4 Time-of-flight USANS at SNS 3.5 SAXS and USAXS instruments at APS, ANL 4. Sample environment 4.1 Sample cells for ambient conditions 4.2 SANS high-pressure cells 4.3 SAXS high-pressure cells 5. Practical aspects of planning and conducting SAS experiments 5.1 Applying for beam time 5.2 Choice of the instrument configuration 5.3 Detector sensitivity and instrument backgrounds 5.4 Optimal sample thickness, transmission and multiple scattering 5.5 Subtraction of the sample background 5.6 Data acquisition time, masking and radial averaging 5.7 Absolute calibration 5.8 Instrument resolution 5.9 Effective thickness of powder samples 5.10 Contrast variation with liquids and gases 5.11 Average scattering length density of multicomponent samples 6. Fundamentals of data analysis 6.1 Correlation functions: mathematical form and geometrical meaning 6.2 Scattering from two-phase random systems: the Porod invariant 6.3 Asymptotic behavior: the Porod law 6.4 Radius of gyration 6.5 Asymptotic behavior: the Guinier approximation 6.6 Structural parameters of the two-phase porous medium 6.7 Bridging the asymptotic behavior: the unified scattering function 6.8 Scattering from fractal systems and the polydisperse spherical model 6.8.1 Scattering from mass, surface, and pore fractals 6.8.2 Polydisperse spherical model 6.9 Beyond the two-phase model 6.9.1 Partial scattering functions of multiphase systems 6.9.2 Scattering contrast and the invariant of a three-phase system 6.9.3 Oscillatory deviations from the Porod law 6.10 Interrelation between the reciprocal and real space 7. Structural characterization of porous materials using SAS 7.1 Porous media for energy, environmental, and biomedical applications 7.2 Porous silica 7.2.1 Porous Vycor glass 7.2.2 Silica aerogels 7.2.3 Porous fractal silica 7.2.4 Ordered mesoporous silica 7.3 Porous carbons 7.3.1 Activated carbons 7.3.2 Glassy carbon 7.3.3 Carbon aerogel 7.4 Alumina membranes 7.5 Porous polymer monoliths 7.6 Ceramics, alloys, and composite materials 7.7 Structure of sedimentary rocks 8. Neutron and x-ray porosimetry 8.1 Principles of the scattering-based porosimetry 8.2 Structure of nanoporous low-dielectric-constant films 8.3 Vapor adsorption in porous silica 8.3.1 Contrast matching SANS 8.3.2 Synchrotron SAXS 8.4 Carbonaceous materials 8.5 Kinetics of sorption and desorption 8.5.1 Dynamic micromapping of CO2 sorption in coal 8.5.2 Vapor adsorption in MCM-41 8.5.3 Vapor and water uptake in Nafion membranes 9. Individual liquids and liquid solutions under confinement 9.1 Confined electrolytes 9.1.1 Ion adsorption in electrolyte saturated porous carbons 9.1.2 Ionic liquids under confinement 9.2 Detection of the oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks 9.3 Cavitation on hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces 9.4 Liquid-liquid demixing in mesopores 9.5 Supercooled water in confined geometries 9.6 Order-disorder transitions in liquid crystals 10. Supercritical fluids in confined geometries 10.1 Specifics of the supercritical fluid adsorption 10.2 Density fluctuations near the liquid-gas critical point of confined fluids 10.3 Adsorption of supercritical CO2 in porous silica 10.3.1 Silica aerogels 10.3.2 Porous fractal silica 10.4 Methane in porous carbons 10.5 Hydrogen storage in activated carbons 10.6 CO2 sequestration in coal 10.7 Pore interconnectivity and accessibility to fluids in coal and shales 10.8 Structural stability of porous materials under pressure 10.9 Appendix: Derivation of the equation (10.23) for accessible porosity

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