Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications

Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications

by Jun Ohta
ISBN-10:
0849336813
ISBN-13:
9780849336812
Pub. Date:
09/17/2007
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis

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Overview

Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications

Because of their high noise immunity and low static power supply drain, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices produce less heat than other forms of logic and allow a high density of logic functions on a chip. These beneficial characteristics have fueled the use of CMOS image sensors in consumer electronics, robot vision, biotechnology, and medicine. With the introduction of smart functions in CMOS image sensors, even more versatile applications are now possible.

Exploring this popular technology, Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications focuses on the smart functions implemented in CMOS image sensors as well as the applications of these sensors. After discussing the history of smart CMOS image sensors, the book describes the fundamental elements of CMOS image sensors. It covers some optoelectronic device physics and introduces typical CMOS image sensor structures, such as an active pixel sensor (APS). Subsequent chapters elucidate the functions and materials of smart CMOS image sensors and present examples of smart imaging. The final chapter explores various applications of smart CMOS image sensors. Several appendices supply a range of information on constants, illuminance, MOSFET characteristics, and optical resolution.

This book provides a firm foundation in existing smart CMOS image sensor technology and applications, preparing you for the next phase of smart CMOS image sensors.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780849336812
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 09/17/2007
Series: Optical Science and Engineering Series
Pages: 272
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 A general overview 1

1.2 Brief history of CMOS image sensors 2

1.3 Brief history of smart CMOS image sensors 5

1.4 Organization of the book 8

2 Fundamentals of CMOS image sensors 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Fundamentals of photodetection 12

2.2.1 Absorption coefficient 12

2.2.2 Behavior of minority carriers 13

2.2.3 Sensitivity and quantum efficiency 15

2.3 Photodetectors for smart CMOS image sensors 17

2.3.1 pn-junction photodiode 18

2.3.2 Photogate 26

2.3.3 Phototransistor 26

2.3.4 Avalanche photodiode 27

2.3.5 Photoconductive detector 27

2.4 Accumulation mode in PDs 29

2.4.1 Potential change in accumulation mode 30

2.4.2 Potential description 30

2.4.3 Behavior of photo-generated carriers in PD 32

2.5 Basic pixel structures 36

2.5.1 Passive pixel sensor 36

2.5.2 Active pixel sensor, 3T-APS 38

2.5.3 Active pixel sensor, 4T-APS 40

2.6 Sensor peripherals 42

2.6.1 Addressing 42

2.6.2 Readout circuits 45

2.6.3 Analog-to-digital converters 46

2.7 Basic sensor characteristics 48

2.7.1 Noise 48

2.7.2 Dynamic range 51

2.7.3 Speed 51

2.8 Color 51

2.9 Pixel sharing 53

2.10 Comparison between pixel architecture 55

2.11 Comparison with CCDs 55

3 Smart functions and materials 59

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Pixel structure 60

3.2.1 Current mode 60

3.2.2 Log sensor 62

3.3 Analog operation 64

3.3.1 Winner-take-all 64

3.3.2 Projection 65

3.3.3 Resistive network 65

3.4 Pulse modulation 66

3.4.1 Pulse width modulation 68

3.4.2 Pulse frequency modulation 70

3.5 Digital processing 78

3.6 Materials other than silicon 79

3.6.1 Silicon-on-insulator 79

3.6.2 Extending the detection wavelength83

3.7 Structures other than standard CMOS technologies 85

3.7.1 3D integration 85

3.7.2 Integration with light emitters 86

3.7.3 Color realization using nonstandard structures 88

4 Smart imaging 93

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Low light imaging 94

4.2.1 Active reset for low light imaging 96

4.2.2 PFM for low light imaging 96

4.2.3 Differential APS 97

4.2.4 Geiger mode APD for a smart CMOS image sensor 97

4.3 High speed 99

4.3.1 Global shutter 99

4.4 Wide dynamic range 100

4.4.1 Principle of wide dynamic range 100

4.4.2 Dual sensitivity 101

4.4.3 Nonlinear response 102

4.4.4 Multiple sampling 105

4.4.5 Saturation detection 107

4.4.6 Diffusive brightness 108

4.5 Demodulation 108

4.5.1 Principles of demodulation 108

4.5.2 Correlation 109

4.5.3 Method of two accumulation regions 111

4.6 Three-dimensional range finder 116

4.6.1 Time of flight 116

4.6.2 Triangulation 121

4.6.3 Depth key 123

4.7 Target tracking 123

4.7.1 Maximum detection for target tracking 124

4.7.2 Projection for target tracking 124

4.7.3 Resistive network and other analog processing for target tracking 125

4.7.4 Digital processing for target tracking 125

4.8 Dedicated arrangement of pixel and optics 129

4.8.1 Non-orthogonal arrangement 129

4.8.2 Dedicated optics 132

5 Applications 137

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Information and communication applications 137

5.2.1 Optical ID tag 138

5.2.2 Optical wireless communication 144

5.3 Biotechnology applications 151

5.3.1 Smart CMOS image sensor with multi-modal functions 152

5.3.2 Potential imaging combining MEMS technology 155

5.3.3 Smart CMOS sensor for optical and electrochemical imaging 156

5.3.4 Fluorescence detection 159

5.4 Medical applications 165

5.4.1 Capsule endoscope 165

5.4.2 Retinal prosthesis 167

A Tables of constants 179

B Illuminance 181

C Human eye and CMOS image sensors 185

D Fundamental characteristics of MOS capacitors 189

E Fundamental characteristics of MOSFET 191

F Optical format and resolution 195

References 197

Index 241

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