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Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics / Edition 2

Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics / Edition 2

by Sheldon K. Friedlander

ISBN-10: 0195129997

ISBN-13: 9780195129991

Pub. Date: 03/30/2000

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Ideal for courses in aerosol science or particle technology, Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics, 2/e, is the only modern text that focuses on aerosol dynamics—the study of the factors that determine changes in the distribution of aerosol properties with respect to particle size. It covers fundamental concepts, experimental methods, and


Ideal for courses in aerosol science or particle technology, Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics, 2/e, is the only modern text that focuses on aerosol dynamics—the study of the factors that determine changes in the distribution of aerosol properties with respect to particle size. It covers fundamental concepts, experimental methods, and a wide variety of applications. Using the aerosol dynamics approach, the author integrates a broad range of topics including stochastic processes, aerosol transport theory, coagulation, formation of agglomerates, classical nucleation theory, and the synthesis of ultrafine solid particles. The book makes extensive use of scaling concepts and dimensional analysis and emphasizes physical and physicochemical interpretations. Basic concepts are illustrated by applications to many fields including air pollution control, the atmospheric sciences, microcontamination in the semiconductor industry, and the industrial manufacture of powders, pigments, additives, and nanoparticles.
Revised and expanded, this second edition features new chapters on the kinetics of agglomeration of noncoalescing particles and the fundamentals of aerosol reactor design. It covers the effects of turbulence on coagulation and gas-to-particle conversion and also discusses the formation of primary particles by the collision-coalescence mechanism. The chapter on the atmospheric aerosol has been completely rewritten within the aerosol dynamics framework. Its basic approach and topicality make Smoke, Dust, and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Dynamics, 2/e, an essential guide for both students and researchers.

Product Details

Oxford University Press
Publication date:
Topics in Chemical Engineering Series
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
9.40(w) x 7.40(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

1. Aerosol Characterization
Parameters Determining Aerosol Behavior
Particle Size
Particle Concentration
Size Distribution Function
Moments of the Distribution Function
Examples of Size Distribution Functions
Chemical Composition
Aerosol Dynamics: Relation to Characterization
2. Particle Transport Properties
Equation of Diffusion
Coefficient of Diffusion
Friction Coefficient
Agglomerate Diffusion Coefficients
Path Length of a Brownian Particle
Migration in an External Force Field
Electrical Migration
London-van der Waals Forces
Boundary Condition for Particle Diffusion
3. Convective Diffusion: Effects of Finite Particle Diameter and External Force Fields
Equation of Convective Diffusion
Similitude Considerations for Aerosol Diffusion
Concentration Boundary Layer
Diffusion to Cylinders at Low Reynolds Numbers: Concentration Boundary Layer Equation
Diffusion at Low Reynolds Numbers: Similitude Law for Particles of Finite Diameter
Low Re Deposition: Comparison of Theory with Experiment
Single Element Particle Capture by Diffusion and Interception at High Reynolds Numbers
High Re Deposition: Application to Deposition on Rough Surfaces
Diffusion from a Laminar Pipe Flow
Diffusion from a Turbulent Pipe Flow
Particle Deposition from Rising Bubbles
Convective Diffusion in an External Force Field: Electrical Precipitation
Thermophoresis: "Dust Free Space"
4. Inertial Transport and Deposition
Particle-Surface Interactions: Low Speeds
Particle-Surface Interactions: Rebound
Particle Acceleration at Low Reynolds Numbers: Stop Distance
Similitude Law for Impaction: Stokesian Particles
Impaction of Stokesian Particles on Cylinders and Spheres
Impaction of Non-Stokesian Particles
Deposition from a Rotating Flow: Cyclone Separator
Particle Eddy Diffusion Coefficient
Turbulent Deposition
Aerodynamic Focusing: Aerosol Beams
Transition from the Diffusion to Inertial Ranges
5. Light Scattering
Scattering by Single Particles: General Considerations
Scattering by Particles Small Compared to the Wavelength
Scattering by Large Particles: The Extinction Paradox
Scattering in the Intermediate Size Range: Mie Theory
Scattering by Aerosol Clouds
Scattering over the Visible Wavelength Range: Aerosol Contributions by Volume
Rayleigh Scattering: Self-Similar Size Distributions
Mie Scattering: Power Law Distributions
Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering
Specific Intensity: Equation of Radiative Transfer
Equation of Radiative Transfer: Formal Solution
Light Transmission Through the Atmosphere: Visibility
Inelastic Scattering: Raman Effect
6. Experimental Methods
Mass Concentration: Filtration
Total Number Concentration: Condensation Particle Counter
Total Light Scattering and Extinction Coefficients
Size Distribution Function
Mass and Chemical Species Distribution: The Cascade Impactor
Aerosol Chemical Analysis
Summary Classification of Measurment Instruments
Monodisperse Aerosol Generators
7. Collision and Coagulation: Coalescing Particles
Collision Frequency Function
Brownian Coagulation
Brownian Coagulation: Dynamics of Discrete Distribution for an Intially Monodisperse Aerosol
Brownian Coagulation: Effect of Particle Force Fields
Effect of van der Waals Forces
Effect of Coulomb Forces
Collision Frequency for Laminar Shear
Simultaneous Laminar Shear and Brownian Motion
Turbulent Coagulation
Equation of Coagulation: Continuous Distribution Function
Similarity Solution: Coagulation in the Continuum Regime
Similarity Solution for Brownian Coagulation
Similarity Solution: Coagulation in the Free Molecule Region
Time to Reach the Self-Preserving Distribution (SPD)
8. Dynamics of Agglomerate Formation and Restructuring
Agglomerate Morphology: Scaling Laws
Computer Simulation of Agglomerate Formation
Langevin Simulations of Agglomeration
Smoluchowski Equation: Collision Kernals for Power Law Aggregates
Self-Preserving Agglomerate Size Distributions
Effect of Primary Particle Size on Agglomerate Growth
Effect of Df on Agglomearte Growth
Agglomerate Restructuring
9. Thermodynamics Properties
The Vapor Pressure Curve and the Supersaturated State
Effects of Solutes on Vapor Pressure
Vapor Pressure of a Small Particle
Hygroscopic Particle-Vapor Equilibrium
Charged Particle-Vapor Equilibria
Solid Particle-Vapor Equilibrium
Effect of Particle Size on the Equilibrium of a Heterogeneous Chemical Reaction
Molecular Clusters
10. Gas-to-Particle Conversion
Condensation by Adiabatic Expansion: The Experiments of C.T.R. Wilson
Kinetics of Homogeneous Nucleation
Experimental Test of Nucleation Theory
Heterogeneous Condensation
Growth Laws
Dynamics of Growth: Continuity Relation in v Space
Measurement of Growth Rates: Homogeneous Gas-Phase Reactions
Simultaneous Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Condensation
Effects of Turbulence on Homogeneous Nucleation
11. The General Dynamic Equation for the Particle Size Distribution Function
General Dynamic Equation for the Discrete Distribution Function
Coagulation and Nucleation as Limiting Processes in Gas-to-Particle Conversion
General Dynamic Equation for the Continuous Distribution Function
The Dynamic Equation for the Number Concentration N
The Dynamic Equation for the Volume Fraction
Simultaneous Coagulation and Diffusional Growth: Similarity Solution for Continuum Regime
Simultaneous Coagulation and Growth: Experimental Results
The GDE for Turbulent Flow
The GDE for Turbulent Stack Plumes
Coagulation and Stirred Settling
Coagulation and Deposition by Convective Diffusion
Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor
12. Synthesis of Submicron Solid Particles: Aerosol Reactors
Aerosol Reactors: Commercial and Pilot Scale
The Collision-Coalescence Mechanism of Primary Particle Formation
Extension of the Smouluchowski Equation to Colliding, Coalescing Particles
Rate Equation for Particle Coalescence
Solid-State Diffusion Coefficient
Estimation of Average Primary Particle Size: Method of Characteristic Times
Primary Particle Size: Effects of Aerosol Material Properties
Particle Neck Formation
Particle Crystal Structure
13. Atmospheric Aerosol Dynamics
Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution
Aerosol Dynamics in Power Plant Plumes
Chemical Composition of Urban Aerosols
Distributions of Chemical Species with Particle Size
Morphological Characteristics of the Submicron Aerosol
Common Measures of Air Quality for Particulate Matter: Federal Standards
Receptor Modeling: Source Apportionment
Statistical Variations of Ambient Aerosol Chemical Components
Each chapter ends with Problems and References
Common Symbols

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