Social Psychology: Unraveling the Mystery

Social Psychology: Unraveling the Mystery

by Douglas T. Kenrick

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Social Psychology: Unraveling the Mystery by Douglas T. Kenrick

Social Psychology: Unraveling the Mystery,/I> explores how social behavior is goal-directed and a result of interactions between the person and the situation.

Social Psychology Unraveling the Mystery has two features that set it apart from other social psychology textbooks:

Opening mysteries: Each chapter begins with a mystery of social behavior, designed not only to grab student interest, but also to organize the ensuing discussion of scientific research: Why would a poor black washerwoman give away her hard-earned life-savings? What psychological forces led the Dalai Lama, the most exalted personage in Tibet, to forge a lifelong friendship with a foreign vagabond openly scorned by Tibetan peasants? Why would a boy falsely confess to murdering his own mother?

A unique integrated approach to social behavior: Rather than encyclopedically listing unconnected factoids, the authors organize each chapter around the two broad themes, asking: (1) what are the goals that underlie the behavior in question? (2) what factors in the person and the situation link to each goal? The book thus presents the discipline as a coherent framework for understanding human behavior.

Cutting-edge scholarship, lively writing, and the authors' strengths as both respected researchers and expert teachers, all come together to make the third edition of Social Psychology: Unraveling the Mystery an accessible and engaging read for students, and provides a modern and cohesive approach for their teachers.

This affordable Books à la Carte Edition features the exact same content from our traditional textbook in a convenient, notebook-ready loose-leaf format - allowing students to take only what they need to class. As a bonus, the Books à la Carte Edition is accompanied by a full-color, laminated Study Card that's a perfect tool to help students prepare for exams.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205491872
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/05/2006
Edition description: Books a la Carte Edition
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Sections include "Interim Summaries" and chapters include "Summary Table of Chapter's Goals, Person, Situation, and Interaction Factors," and "Written Summary."

1. Introduction to Social Psychology.
The Mysteries of Social Life.
What Is Social Psychology?
Scientific Description and Explanation.
The Major Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology.
The Sociocultural Perspective. The Evolutionary Perspective. Focus on Culture: Social Differences and Similarities in Homicide Patterns. The Social Learning Perspective. The Phenomenological Perspective. The Social Cognitive Perspective. Combining Perspectives.
Basic Principles of Social Behavior.
Social Behavior Is Goal-Oriented. Focus on Gender: Social Rules for Attracting Mates. Motives, Goals, and Social Behavior. The Interaction between the Person and the Situation.
How Psychologists Study Social Behavior.
Descriptive Methods. Focus on Social Dysfunction: The Case of a Mass Murderer and His Family. Correlation and Causation. Experimental Methods. Why Social Psychologists Combine Different Methods. Ethical Issues in Social Psychological Research.
How Does Social Psychology Fit into the Network of Knowledge?
Social Psychology and Other Areas of Psychology. Social Psychology and Other Disciplines.
Revisiting the Mysteries of Social Life.

2. The Person in the Situation.
The Enigma of an Ordinary and Extraordinary Man.
The Motivational System: Motives and Goals.
What Are Motives and Goals? Where Do Motives and Goals Come From? Focus on Culture: Individualistic andCollectivistic Goals. From Desire to Reality: Self-Regulation, Attention, and Automaticity. Focus on Social Dysfunction: Creating the Opposite of What We Intend. Readying Motives and Goals for Action.
The Representational System: Our "View" of Ourselves and the World.
The Nature of Mental Representations. Representing Ourselves: The Self-Concept. Activating Mental Representations. Representations as Expectations. Representation and Motivation Together.
The Affective System: Feelings.
Focus on Method: Assessing Attitudes, Emotions, and Moods. Where Do Emotions, Moods, and Attitudes Come From? Focus on Gender: Are Women Really More "Emotional" Than Men? Affect and Motivation Together. Affect and Representation Together.
From the Person to Behavior.
The Great Debates: Do Attitudes and Traits Cause Behavior? Lesson 1: The Importance of Reliable Measurement. Lesson 2: The Role of Central Aspects of the Person. Lesson 3: The Interaction of Person Components. Lesson 4: The Person and Situation Interact. Focus on Application: Honesty in the Workplace.
Revisiting the Enigma of an Ordinary and Extraordinary Man.

3. Social Cognition: Understanding Ourselves and Others.
The Contrary Portraits of Richard Nixon.
The Social Thinker.
Attention, Interpretation, Judgment, and Memory. The Varying Goals of Social Cognition.
The Goal: To Conserve Mental Effort.
Expectation Confirmation Strategies. Focus on Social Dysfunction: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. Dispositional Inferences: Focus on Culture: How Fundamental Is the "Fundamental Attribution Error." Other Cognitive Shortcuts. Focus on Method: Using Experiments to Test Alternative Hypotheses. The Person: Arousal, Positive Feelings, and Need for Structure. The Situation: Situational Complexity and Time Pressure. Interactions: When the World Doesn't Fit Our Expectations.
The Goal: To Manage Self-Image.
Cognitive Strategies for Enhancing and Protecting the Self: Focus on Application: Control Beliefs and Health. The Person: Personal Self-Esteem. The Situation: Threats to Personal Self-Esteem. Interactions: Personal Self-Esteem, Self-Esteem Instability, and Threat.
The Goal: To Be Accurate.
Unbiased Information Gathering and Assessment. The Strategy of Attributional Logic. The Person: Desire for Control, Sadness, and Need for Cognition. Focus on Gender: Do Women and Men Think Differently?. The Situation: Unexpected Events and Social Interdependence. Interactions: The Crucial Role of Cognitive Resources.
Revisiting the Contrary Portraits of Richard Nixon.

4. Presenting the Self.
The Amazing Lives of Fred Demara.
What Is Self-Presentation?
Why Do People Self-Present? When Do People Self-Present? The Nature of Self-Presentation. Focus on Application: Detecting Deception.
The Goal: To Appear Likable.
Strategies of Integration. Focus on Methods: The Science of Deciphering Facial Expressions. Focus on Culture: Modesty Norms across Cultures. The Person: Gender. The Situation: Potential Friends and Power-Holders Interactions: Presenting to Audiences Having Differing Values.
The Goal: To Appear Competent.
Strategies of Self-Promotion. Focus on Social Dysfunction: The Paradox of Self-Handicapping. The Person: Competence, Motivation, and Shyness. The Situation: When Competence Matters. Interactions: Competence Checks and the Interpersonal Cycle of Self-Promotion.
The Goal: To Convey High Status and Power.
Strategies of High Status and Power.
The Person: Gender and Self-Presentation Revisited.
The Situation: The Role of Competition. Interactions: Gender of Actor, Gender
of Audience. Focus on Gender:
The Self-Presentational Dilemma
of Aspiring Women.

Revisiting the Amazing Lives of Fred Demara.

5. Persuasion.
The Changing Story of Peter Reilly.
Defining and Determining Persuasion.
Which Attitudes Resist Persuasion? How Can We Measure Persuasion? Focus on Method: The After-Only Design. Cognitive Responses: Self-Talk Persuades. Focus on Application: Smoking the Tobacco Companies with Counterarguments. Dual Process Models of Persuasion: Two Routes to Change. The Goals of Persuasion: Why People Change Their Attitudes and Beliefs.
The Goal: To Be Accurate.
Good Shortcuts: Credible Communicators, Others' Responses, and Ready Ideas. The Person: Issue Involvement, Mood, and Suggestibility. The Situation: Done Deals and Unwelcome Information. Focus on Social Dysfunction: Defensiveness and Denial. Interactions: Credibility, Complexity, and Need for Cognition.
The Goal: To Be Consistent.
Balance Theory. Cognitive Dissonance Theory. The Person: Arousal and Preference for Consistency. The Situation: Consequences and Salience. Interactions: Consistent with What? Focus on Culture: Successful Ads in Different Cultures.
The Goal: To Gain Social Approval.
The Person: Self-Monitoring and Gender. Focus on Gender: Women, Men, and Persuasion.. The Situation: The Nature of the Audience and the Expectation of Discussion. Interactions: Expected Discussions and Social Approval.
Revisiting the Story of Peter Reilly.

6. Social Influence.
The Extraordinary Turnaround (and around) of Steve Hassan.
Categories of Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience.
Conformity: Asch's Research on Group Influence. Compliance: The Foot-in-the-Door Tactic. Focus on Methods: Participant Observation. Obedience: Milgram's Electric Shock Procedure. The Goals of Social Influence.
The Goal: Choose Correctly.
Principles: Authority and Social Validation. Focus on Social Dysfunction: Mass Hysteria. The Person: Uncertainty. The Situation: Consensus and Similarity. Interactions: Uncertainty and the Desire for Accuracy.
The Goal: To Gain Social Approval.
Social Norms: Codes of Conduct. Focus on Culture: Norms of Obligation. The Person: Approval, Collectivism, and Rebelliousness The Situation: Appeal and Observability. Interactions: Who Is Strong Enough to Resist Strong Group Norms? Focus on Application: Doing Wrong by Trying to Do Right.
The Goal: To Manage Self-Image.
Commitment-Based Tactics. The Person: Existing Values and Internal Focus. The Situation: Active and Public Commitments Interactions: Men, Women, and Public Conformity. Focus on Gender: Me Macho, I Won't Show Change.
Revisiting the Turnaround of Steve Hassan.

7. Affiliation and Friendship.
The Woman Who "Everybody Loved," and the Man Who Hated Her.
Defining and Describing Affiliation and Friendship.
Studying Real-Life Relationships. Focus on Method: Studying Intimate Relationships without Really Being There. Agreeableness and Dominance. Goals of Affiliative Behavior.
The Goal: To Get Social Support.
Focus on Application: Health Psychology and Social Support. The Person: Birth Order, Dependency, and Intimacy Motivation. The Situation: Impersonal Danger, Social Isolation, and Embarrassment. Interactions: Pushing Support Away. Focus on Social Dysfunction: The Self-Perpetuating Cycle of Loneliness and Depression.
The Goal: To Get Information.
Social Comparison and Liking for Similar Others. The Person: Self-Disclosures and Non-Disclosures. The Situation: Uncertainty and Similarity of the Others. Interactions: Positivity Bias and Self-Esteem Maintenance.
The Goal: To Gain Status.
The Person: Intimacy and Power Needs. Focus on Gender: Sex Differences in Friendships. The Situation: Status Salience, and Stigmatic Associations. Interactions: Seeking Status May Erode Social Support.
The Goal: To Exchange Material Benefits.
Fundamental Patterns of Social Exchange. The Person: Individual Differences in Communal Orientation. The Situation: Communal Relationships and Proximity. Interactions: Social Exchange Depends on Who's Nearby. Focus on Culture: Are Personal Relationships Different in Western and Non-Western Cultures? Revisiting the Beloved Eleanor Roosevelt and the Hate-Filled Hoover.

8. Love and Romantic Relationships.
The Puzzling Love Lives of the British Monarchs.
Defining Love and Romantic Attraction.
The Defining Features of Love. Focus on Method: Uncovering the Different Factors of Love. Are There Different Varieties of Love? Goals of Romantic Relationships.
The Goal: To Gain Sexual Satisfaction.
The Person: Hormones, Sociosexual Attitudes, Social Attractiveness, and Gender. Focus on Gender: What Do Men and Women Look for in Romantic Relationships?. The Situation: Arousing Settings, Nonverbal Cues, and Cultural Norms. Interactions: Variations in Perceptions and Reactions.
The Goal: To Establish Family Bonds.
The Attachment System. The Person: Attachment Style, Temperament, and Exchange Orientation. The Situation: Threats, Children, and Within-Sex Competition. Focus on Social Dysfunction: Obsessive Relationships and Unrequited Love. Interactions: Communication Patterns and Reciprocal Effects of Personality and Marriage. Focus on Application: Studying Healthy Communication to Save Marriages.
The Goal: To Gain Resources and Status.
Focus on Culture: Cross-Cultural Differences in Monogamy and Polygamy. The Person: Gender and Sexual Orientation. The Situation: Changing Levels of Involvement. Interactions: Dominance by Itself Isn't Enough.
Revisiting the Love Lives of the British Monarchs.
Chapter Summary.

9. Prosocial Behavior.
The Strange Case of Senpo Sugihara.
Defining Prosocial Behavior.
Types of Prosocial Behavior. The Goals of Prosocial Action.
The Goal: To Gain Genetic and Material Advantage.
Insights into the Evolution of Help. Focus on Methods: Using Behavioral Genetics to Study Helping. The Person: Instilled Beliefs and the Expanded Sense of "We." The Situation: Similarity, and Familiarity. Focus on Application: Getting Help by Adjusting the Helper's Sense of "We." Interactions: Types of Helpers, Types of Victims, and Types of Need.
The Goal: To Gain Status and Approval.
Focus on Culture: The Puzzle of the Potlatch. Social Responsibility: The Helping Norm. The Person: Need for Approval and Awareness of the Helping Norm. The Situation: Helping Models and Population Density. Interactions: Gender, and Type of Help. Focus on Gender: When and Why Women Help More Than Men.
The Goal: To Manage Self-Image.
The Person: Personal Norms, and Religious Codes. The Situation: Labeling and Self-Focus. Interactions: Deciding Not to Help Friends or to Seek Their Help. Focus on Social Dysfunction: Failing to Seek Needed Help.
The Goal: To Manage Our Moods and Emotions.
Managing Arousal in Emergency Situations: The Arousal/Cost-Reward Model. Managing Mood in Nonemergency Situations: The Negative State Relief Model. The Person: Sadness and Age. The Situation: Costs/Benefits of Helping and the Ability of Helping to Influence Mood. Interactions: Gourmets and Gourmands.
Does Pure Altruism Exist?
The Empathy-Altruism Sequence.
The Egoistic Interpretation.
Revisiting the Case of Senpo Sugihara.

10. Aggression.
A Wave of Senseless Violence.
Defining Aggression.
Different Types of Aggression. Focus on Gender: Differences in Aggression May Depend on Your Definition. Goals Served by Aggressive Behavior.
The Goal: To Cope with Feelings of Annoyance.
The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis. The Person: Arousal States and Type A Syndrome. The Situation: Pain, Heat, and Poverty. Interactions: Frustration, Perception, and Personal Choices.
The Goal: To Gain Material and Social Rewards.
Focus on Social Dysfunction: Gangland Violence. The Social Learning Theory of Aggression. The Person: Psychopathy, Empathy, and Alcohol Intoxication. The Situation: Violent Media, Competitive Sports, and Glamorized Wars. Focus on Method: Using Meta-Analysis to Examine the Effects of Violent Media. Interactions: Choosing to Watch Glamorized Violence.
The Goal: To Gain or Maintain Social Status.
Aggression and Sexual Selection. The Person: Sex and Testosterone. The Situation: Insults and "Trivial Altercations." Focus on Culture: The Culture of Honor. Interactions: Different Opportunity Paths.
The Goal: To Protect Oneself or Others.
The Person: Self-Defensive Attributional Style and the Effect/Danger Ratio. The Situation: Perceived Threats. Interactions: Self-Protective Aggression May Increase Danger.
Reducing Violence.
Rewarding Alternatives to Aggression. Focus on Application: Using Cognition to Manage Angry Arousal. Legal Punishments. Prevention by Removing Threats.
Revisiting Senseless Violence.

11. Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination.
The Unlikely Journey of Ann Atwater and C.P. Ellis.
Plant Prejudice.
Group Antagonisms: Some Definitions. Focus on Gender: Sexual Harassment as Gender Discrimination. The Costs of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination. The Goals of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination.
The Goal: To Gain Material Benefits for One's Group.
Creating and Maintaining Ingroup Advantage. The Person: Social Dominance Orientation. Focus on Culture: Social Dominance Orientation across the Globe. The Situation: Intergroup Competition. Interactions: The Self-Fulfilling Spiral of Intergroup Competition.

The Goal: To Gain Social Approval.
The Person: Conformity-Seeking, Self-Monitoring, and Perceived Social Standing. The Situation: The Time and the Place. Interactions: Intrinsic Religiosity and Prejudice.
The Goal: To Manage Self-Image.
Personal and Social Identities. The Person: Ingroup Identification and Authoritarianism. Focus on Dysfunction: The Authoritarian Personality. The Situation: Failure. Interactions: Self-Esteem and Threat.
The Goal: To Conserve Mental Effort.
The Characteristics of Useful Stereotypes. Focus on Method: Exploring the Automatic Activation of Stereotypes. The Person: Need for Structure, Moods, and Emotions. The Situation: Cognitively Taxing Circumstances. Interactions: Overheard Ethnic Slurs.
Reducing Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination.
Interventions Based on the Ignorance Hypothesis. The Goal-Based Approach. When Contact Helps. Focus on Application: Cooperation in the Classroom.
Revisiting the Journey of Ann Atwater and C.P. Ellis.

12. Groups.
The Surprising Rise and Fall of Margaret Thatcher.
The Nature of Groups.
The Mere Presence of Others and Social Facilitation. Crowds and Deindividuation. Groups as Dynamic Systems: The Emergence of Norms. Focus on Method: Using Computer Simulation to Explore Complex Group Processes. "Real" Groups: Interdependence, Group Identity, and Structure. Why Do People Belong to Groups?
The Goal: To Get Things Done.
Lightening the Load, Dividing the Labor. Focus on Social Dysfunction: The Social Disease of Social Loafing. The Person: Expectations of Individual Failure and Group Success. The Situation: Current Needs, Individualistic Societies. Interactions: When Are Groups Productive? Focus on Culture: Cultural Diversity and Group Performance.
The Goal: To Make Accurate Decisions.
The Person: The Need to Know. The Situation: Uncertain Circumstances. Interactions: Discussion and Decision Making. Polarization, Minority Influence, and Groupthink. Focus on Application: Majority and Minority Influence in the Jury Room.
The Goal: To Gain Positions of Leadership.
The Person: Ambition, Energy, and Gender. The Situation: Voids at the Top, Connections. Interactions: Who Gets to Lead, and When Is Leadership Effective? Focus on Gender: When Women Make Better Leaders.
Revisiting the Rise and Fall of Margaret Thatcher.

13. Global Social Dilemmas.
Burgeoning Bengalis, Disappearing Shellfish, and Wars with No Possible Victors.
Defining Social Dilemmas.
Focus on Social Dysfunction. The Tragedy of the Commons. Interlocking Problems and Solutions. Goals Underlying Global Social Dilemmas.

The Goal: To Gain Immediate Satisfaction.
Social Traps. The Person: Egoistic versus Prosocial Orientations. The Situation: Timing of Consequences and Activation of Social Norms. Interactions: Different Policies for Different Motives.
The Goal: To Defend Ourselves and Valued Others.
Outgroup Bias and International Conflict. The Person: Social Dominance, Authoritarianism, and Deterrence Worldview. Focus on Gender: Differences in Ethnocentrism and Militarism. The Situation: Competition and Threat. Focus on Method: Time Series Analysis and International Cooperation. Focus on Culture: Intercultural Miscommunication and International Conflict. Interactions: The Reciprocal Dynamics of Cooperation and Conflict. Focus on Application: Increasing Intergroup Cooperation with the "GRIT" Strategy.
Revisiting the Mysteries of Bangladesh, Disappearing Shellfish, and Wars with No Possible Victors.

14. Integrating Social Psychology.
Public Spectacles, Hidden Conspiracies, and Multiple Motives.
What Ground Have We Covered?
Findings and Theories.
The Major Theoretical Perspectives and Social Psychology.
The Sociocultural Perspective. The Evolutionary Perspective. Focus on Culture: Seeing Our Commonality through the Many Societal Differences. The Social Learning Perspective. The Phenomenological Perspective. The Social Cognitive Perspective. Focus on Gender: Are Sex Differences in Our Genes, in Our Cultural Learning Experiences, or All in Our Minds?
Connecting the Different Perspectives.
Social Behavior Is Goal-Oriented. Focus on Social Dysfunction: The Thin Line between Normal and Abnormal Social Functioning. The Interaction between the Person and the Situation.
Why Research Methods Matter.
Focus on Methods: Some Conclusions for Consumers of Social Science Information.
How Social Psychology Fits into the Network of Knowledge.
Focus on Application: Social Psychology's Usefulness for Medicine, Business, and Law.
The Future of Social Psychology.


Name Index.

Subject Index.

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