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Cengage Learning
Social Work and Social Welfare: An Introduction / Edition 5

Social Work and Social Welfare: An Introduction / Edition 5


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534621773
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 08/01/2004
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 560
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Rosalie Ambrosino is professor and interim chair of the Department of Social Work at the University of Texas at San Antonio where she teaches policy and cultural competence. She previously taught research, human behavior, and practice courses in child welfare. She also served on the faculty and as head of the BSW Program at the University of Texas at Austin for 18 years. Dr. Ambrosino has extensive social work experience in settlement houses/community centers, child welfare, school social work, and administration. She received her Ph.D. at the University of Texas at Austin, her master's degree at Antioch University, and her bachelor's degree at the University of Minnesota.

Joseph Heffernan taught policy and research courses at the University of Texas at Austin before retiring. He has significant macro-level experience with policy analysis, with particular emphasis on poverty and economic issues relating to social welfare.

Guy Shuttlesworth, a noted gerontology authority, is a professor emeritus from the University of Texas at Austin, where he taught policy and practice courses as well as developed a gerontology program. His research interests include long-term care and rural America.

Robert Ambrosino is a lecturer at the University of Texas at San Antonio. A seasoned instructor in policy, research, community practice courses, and transformational leadership, he has also taught at St. Edwards University in Austin and the University of Texas at Austin. With his extensive experience in macro practice, Dr. Ambrosino served as deputy commissioner of the Texas Department of Human Services, developed Texas food stamp electronic benefits cards, and worked as executive director of a statewide Texas nonprofit family and youth services agency. He received his Ph.D. from State University of New York at Albany and his bachelor's degree from Siena College.

Table of Contents

Preface     XV
Understanding Social Work and Social Welfare: Key Concepts and Perspectives     1
Social Welfare, Past and Present     4
A Definition of Social Welfare and Its Relationship to Social Work     5
The Value Base of Social Welfare     6
Our English Heritage     7
Social Welfare in Colonial America     9
Changing Patterns after the Revolution     9
Caring for the Urban Poor     10
Caring for Specific Populations     10
The New Deal     13
The Social Security Act     14
Social Insurance     14
Public Assistance     15
Health and Welfare Services     15
Social Welfare: The Post-Social Security and Welfare Reform Eras     15
The Great Society Programs     16
Conservatism in the Mid-1960s and Early 1970s     17
Welfare Reform and the Late 1970s     17
Cutbacks in the Reagan and Bush Years     18
The Clinton Years     19
The George W. Bush Years     19
Summary     22
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     22
Discussion Questions     22
On the Internet     23
References     23
Suggested Further Readings     23
Social Work and Other Helping Professions     24
Why Do People Have Problems?     25
Genetics and Heredity     25
Socialization     25
Cultural Differences     26
Environmental Factors     26
The Opportunity Structure     26
Social Work Defined     27
The Early Years of Social Work     27
Underpinnings of the Profession     31
Values     31
Ethics     31
Liberal Arts Base     31
Knowledge That Builds on the Liberal Arts Base     32
Practice Skills     33
Planned Change     33
Social Work Methods     34
Social Work with Individuals and Families (Casework)     34
Social Work with Groups (Group Work)     34
Community Organization     34
Social Work Research     35
Social Work Administration and Planning     35
Professional Issues in Social Work     35
The Social Agency     35
Education and Levels of Social Work Practice     36
Bachelor of Social Work (BSW)     36
Master of Social Work: Advanced Practice     38
Doctorate in Social Work (DSW and PhD)     38
Careers in Social Work     38
Collaboration with Other Helping Professions     40
Other Professionals Likely to Collaborate with Social Workers     40
The Need for Professional Diversity     43
The Baccalaureate Social Worker and Other Professions     46
Summary     45
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     47
Discussion Questions     47
On the Internet     48
References     48
Suggested Further Readings     48
The Systems/Ecological Perspective     49
The Impact of Theoretical Frameworks on Intervention     50
The Difference Between Causal Relationships and Association     51
A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Welfare Problems     52
The Systems/Ecological Framework     53
The Perspective of Systems Theory     55
System     55
Synergy     55
Boundaries     55
Steady State     59
Equifinality     60
Critiques of the Systems/Ecological Framework     60
Levels of the Environment      60
Problems in Living     64
Utility of the Systems/Ecological Framework     65
The Utility of Other Theories and Frameworks     67
Psychosocial Frameworks     67
Cognitive Behavioral Frameworks     68
Political and Ideological Frameworks     68
The Systems/Ecological Framework in Professional Practice     69
Applying the Systems/Ecological Framework     69
The Generalist Model     71
The Strengths Perspective     72
Empowerment     74
Social and Economic Justice     74
The Helping Process     76
Applications with Juan and His Family     77
Summary     79
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     80
Discussion Questions     80
On the Internet     80
References     80
Suggested Further Readings     81
Diversity and Social Justice     83
Social and Economic Justice     84
Prejudice and Discrimination     85
Social and Economic Justice for Women     87
Income     88
Education     91
Social Work     91
Religion      91
Politics     91
Institutional Sexism     92
Issues Relating to Reproductive Rights     93
Legal Issues     93
Medical Issues     94
Values Issues     95
Social Reform: The Feminist Movement     96
Social and Economic Justice: Sexual Orientation     97
Social and Economic Justice: Class     100
Social and Economic Justice: Race and Ethnicity     101
African Americans     102
Latino Populations     103
Asians and Pacific Islanders     104
Native Americans     105
Efforts to Produce Social Justice for Populations at Risk     106
School Desegregation     106
Civil Rights Legislation     107
Uneven Progress     108
Affirmative Action     108
Law Enforcement and Profiling     110
Social Work and the Civil Rights Movement     110
Summary     112
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     113
Discussion Questions     113
On the Internet     114
References     114
Suggested Further Readings     115
Social Work Practice: Methods of Intervention      117
Social Work Practice with Individuals, Families, and Groups     120
Generalist Practice: Background     121
Generalist Practice: A Definition     122
Preparation for Generalist Practice with Individuals, Families, and Groups     123
Social Study     123
Assessment     124
Goal Setting     124
Contracting     124
Intervention     124
Evaluation     125
The Social Worker-Client Relationship     125
The Development of Practice Skills     126
Conceptual Skills     126
Interviewing Skills     127
Recording     127
Practice Theories and Skills: Individuals and Families     128
Systems/Ecological Framework     128
Ego Psychology     128
Problem-Solving Approach     129
Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches     130
Task-Centered Social Work     131
Social Work Intervention with Families     132
Other Approaches     132
Practice Theories and Skills: Groups     133
Group Focus     134
Effective Group Development     135
Theory for Group Work Practice      137
Group Work as a Practice     138
Group Settings     139
Group Termination     139
Practice Effectiveness with Individuals, Families, and Groups     139
Supervision of Generalist Practitioners     140
Social Work Practice and the MSW Social Worker     140
The BSW Social Worker in Practice with Individuals, Families, and Groups     141
Summary     142
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     142
Discussion Questions     142
On the Internet     143
References     143
Suggested Further Readings     143
Social Work Practice with Agencies and the Community     144
Social Work with Communities     145
Community: Definition and Social Work Roles     146
Roles of Social Workers in Communities     146
Community Practice Models and Approaches     148
Profile of an Effective Community Organizer     149
Policy Practice     149
The Development of Social Welfare Policy     149
Models of Policy Analysis     150
The Practitioner's Role in Social Welfare Policy     151
Administration and Delivery of Social Welfare Services     151
Meeting the Challenge     151
Weighing the Client's Best Interests     152
Social Welfare Agencies     152
A Historical Perspective     152
Contemporary Structures     153
Research Practice     154
Disciplinary Research     154
Policy Research     155
Evaluative Research     156
Demonstrating a Causal Connection     156
The Status of Social Work in Communities, Policy, Administration, and Research     156
Career Opportunities in Agency Administration, Community Social Work, Policy, and Research     157
Summary     159
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     160
Discussion Questions     160
On the Internet     161
References     161
Suggested Further Readings     162
Fields of Practice and Populations Served by Social Workers     163
Poverty, Income Assistance, and Homelessness     167
Views on Poverty and How to Help     169
Conceptualizations of Poverty     170
Definitions of Poverty     171
Who Are America's Poor?     172
Welfare Reform-An End to Welfare as We Knew It     174
Relevant Legislation      175
Revisions to the Law     176
Current Strategies for Addressing Poverty     179
A Strong Market and Family System     179
Social Insurance Programs     179
Public Assistance Programs     182
In-Kind Benefits and Tax Credits     183
Other Anti-Poverty Programs     183
Basic Political Perspectives     183
The New Millennium: 2000 and Beyond     185
Homelessness     189
Composition of the Homeless Population     190
Policies and Programs That Address Homelessness     199
The Roles of Social Workers in the Fight against Poverty     200
Summary     201
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     201
Discussion Questions     202
On the Internet     202
References     202
Suggested Further Readings     206
Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Disabilities     208
Mental Health     211
Mental Health and Mental Illness: Definitions     212
Categorizing Mental Illness     213
Mental Health: A Matter of Viewpoint     215
The Development of Mental Health Problems     215
Types of Mental Health Problems     219
Depression     219
Bipolar Disorder     220
Schizophrenia     220
Anxiety Disorders     220
Suicide     221
Impacts of Mental Health Status on At-Risk Populations     222
Alcoholism and Substance Abuse     223
Commonly Abused Substances     225
Social and Economic Costs of Substance Abuse     227
At-Risk Populations and Substance Abuse     228
Developmental Disabilities     232
Factors Associated with Developmental Disabilities     235
Changing Views Toward Mental Health Problems, Substance Abuse and Developmental Disabilities     236
The First Revolution: From Inhumane to Moral Treatment     236
The Second Revolution: The Introduction of Psychoanalysis     238
The Third Revolution: A Shift to Community Mental Health Programs     238
The Fourth Revolution: Legal Rights of Clients and Consumer Advocacy     240
Neurobiology and Implications for Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Disabilities     243
Availability of Resources and Responsibility for Care     244
Deinstitutionalization     244
Wide-Ranging Program Alternatives     246
Interventions for Substance Abusers and Their Families     247
Interventions for Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Families     248
The Americans with Disabilities Act     248
Other Disabilities Legislation     252
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act     252
Prevention versus Treatment     253
Trends in Services and Treatment     254
Managed Care     254
Insurance Legislation     254
Deficit Reduction Act     255
Evolving Therapies     256
Roles and Opportunities for Social Workers     258
Historical Background     258
Career Opportunities in Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Disability Services     259
Summary     261
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     261
Discussion Questions     261
On the Internet     262
References     262
Suggested Further Readings     265
Health Care     266
The State of Health in the United States     267
Moral and Ethical Issues     268
A Systems/Ecological Approach to Health Care     269
Factors Affecting Health     270
Applying a Systems/Ecological Perspective      275
The Evolution of Health Care in America     275
Critical Issues in Current Health-Care Delivery     277
Funding and Costs of Health Care     277
Health Insurance Plans and Managed Care     279
Comparing Health-Care Costs to Outcomes     283
Reasons for Rising Health-Care Costs     284
Current Major Health Problems     288
HIV and AIDS     288
Other Illnesses and Health Problems     290
Catastrophic Illness     292
Teen Pregnancy     294
Environmental Factors     294
Prevention and Wellness Programs     295
Ethical Issues     295
Baby Doe Cases     297
Right-to-Die Cases     297
Bioethics     299
Alternative Medicine     300
Health Planning     300
Hill-Burton Act     300
Medicare and Medicaid     300
Maternal and Child Health Act     303
Healthy Steps for Young Children Program     303
Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)     303
Other Child Health Provisions under the Balanced Budget Act of 1997     304
Comprehensive Health Planning Act     304
Health Maintenance Organization Legislation     305
CARE Act     305
Future Legislation: Health-Care Reform     305
Social Work Roles in the Delivery of Health Services     308
Historical Background     308
Contemporary Roles in Health-Care Settings     309
Hospital Settings     310
Long-Term Care Facilities and Nursing Homes     310
Community-Based Health Care Programs     310
Home Health Care     311
State Department of Health and Health-Planning Agencies     311
Other Health-Care Settings     312
Summary     313
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     313
Discussion Questions     314
On the Internet     314
References     314
Suggested Further Readings     319
The Needs of Children, Youth, and Families     320
What Is a Family?     322
How Are Families of Today Viewed?     323
What Is a Healthy Family?     323
How Are Family Problems Defined?     323
What Causes Families to Have Problems?     325
How Do Cultural and Gender Differences Affect Family Problems?     325
Changing Family Situations      327
Divorce and Separation     328
Single Parenting     330
Gay and Lesbian Parenting     332
Stepparenting and Blended Families     332
Family Problems Affecting Children     334
Substance Abuse     334
Spouse Abuse     337
Child Maltreatment     340
Problems Associated with Adolescents     349
Summary     353
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     354
Discussion Questions     354
On the Internet     354
References     355
Suggested Further Readings     357
Services to Children, Youth, and Families     358
Current Philosophical Issues     359
The Right to a Permanent, Nurturing Family     359
Best Interests of the Child     360
Considerations before State Intervention     360
Preventing Family Disruption and Dysfunction     361
How Accountable Are Parents?     361
Defining Services to Children, Youth, and Families     362
The History of Services to Children, Youth, and Families     364
Colonial Times     364
The 19th Century     364
The Early 20th Century      365
The 1960s and 1970s     366
The Mid-1980s and the 1990s     368
Moving into the 21st Century     370
Preventive Services to Children     374
Natural Support Systems     374
Home-Based Services     374
Parent Education     375
Child Development and Child-Care Programs     375
Recreational, Religious, and Social Programs     376
Health and Family-Planning Programs     376
Educational Opportunities     376
School Social Work     377
Services to Children and Families at Risk     378
Health and Hospital Outreach Programs     379
Child Care     380
Homemaker Services     382
Crisis Intervention Programs     382
Counseling     382
Support and Self-Help Groups     383
Volunteer and Outreach Programs     383
Child Protective Services     386
Investigations of Child Maltreatment     386
Determination of Intervention     386
Typical Services Provided     387
Family Preservation Services     388
Substitute Care     389
Foster Care      390
Residential Treatment     392
Adoption     392
Child Welfare and Cultural Diversity     395
Child Welfare and the Future     397
The Role of Social Workers in Providing Services to Children, Youth, and Families     398
Summary     400
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     400
Discussion Questions     400
On the Internet     401
References     401
Suggested Further Readings     404
Older Adults: Needs and Services     405
Physiological Aging     407
Behavior and Adaptation to Old Age     408
Theories of Aging     408
Continuity Theory     409
Activity Theory     409
Developmental Theory     409
Exchange Theory     409
Attitudes toward Growing Old     410
Retirement     410
The Families of Older Adults     414
Dying and Death     416
Aging and Mental Health     417
Income Security     418
Health and Health-Care Services     421
Abuse and Neglect     421
Long-Term Care     423
Housing      426
Transportation     427
Older People of Color     427
Services for Older Adults     428
Social Work with Older Adults     429
Summary     430
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     430
Discussion Questions     430
On the Internet     431
References     431
Suggested Further Readings     432
Criminal Justice     433
The Criminal Justice System     434
Legislative Component     434
Law Enforcement Component     435
Judicial Component     435
Corrections Component     438
The Juvenile Justice System     440
The Gault Decision     440
Juvenile Justice Agencies     441
Juvenile Courts     441
Juvenile Corrections     441
Dual System of Justice     442
Differential Treatment of Minority Youth in the Justice System     444
Alternatives to Get-Tough Policies     446
Rehabilitation     448
Vocational Training     449
Work Release     449
Financial Assistance     449
Prison Industries      449
Treatment     450
Issues in Rehabilitation     450
Crime Prevention     450
Views of Criminal Behavior     452
Psychological Views of the Criminal Personality     452
Social Views of Criminal Behavior     452
Economic Rationale of Crime     453
Program Alternatives     453
The Role of Social Work in the Criminal Justice System     454
Summary     455
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     455
Discussion Questions     455
On the Internet     456
References     456
Suggested Further Readings     458
Social Work in Rural Settings     459
Operational Definitions     450
Limitations of Rural and Urban Classification Systems     460
Defining What Is Rural     461
Characteristics of Rural Populations     461
Social Organization of Rural Communities     463
Support Services in Rural Communities     464
Social Problems and Needs in Rural Areas     465
Mental Health     466
Health Care     468
Poverty     469
Older Adults     469
Ethnic Composition      469
The Rural Family     471
The Crisis of the Small Farmer     471
Social Welfare in Rural Communities     472
Social Work in Rural Settings     473
Rural Social Work as Generalist Practice     475
The Baccalaureate Social Worker and Rural Social Work Practice     476
Summary     478
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Edition     478
Discussion Questions     478
On the Internet     479
References     479
Suggested Further Readings     480
Social Work in the Workplace     481
A Historical Perspective on Work and Family Relationships     483
The Current Workforce     484
More Women in the Workforce     484
Single-Parent Families     485
Emerging Issues     485
Greater Ethnic Diversity within the Workforce     486
Types of Jobs Available     487
The Changing Nature of Work and the Workplace     488
Unemployment and Underemployment     489
Changing Attitudes and Values toward Work     490
The Impact of Changes on Employees and Their Families     492
Balancing Work and Family Life      493
Increased Stress     494
Relocation     494
Financial Problems     495
Family and Medical Leave Act     496
Accidents and Other Occupational Hazards     496
Violence in the Workplace     497
Sexual Harassment     498
Child Care for Working Parents     499
Care of Elderly Parents     500
Changing Expectations about Work and Family Life     501
Implications for the Mental Health of Employees and Their Families     501
Implications for the Workplace     501
Increased Demands on Employers     502
Affiliation Needs     502
Addressing Work and Family Problems: Whose Responsibility?     502
Employee Assistance Programs     503
Dependent-Care Programs     505
Social Work in the Workplace     507
Industrial Social Work     507
Occupational Social Work     509
Social Work in the Changing Workplace     510
Applying a Systems/Ecological Perspective     511
Service Models     511
Summary     513
Key Terms and Infotrac College Edition     513
Discussion Questions     514
On the Internet      514
References     514
Suggested Further Readings     517
The Globalization of Social Work     518
A Changed World     519
International Social Welfare and Globalization     520
Responding to the Challenge of Globalization     521
Children and Human Rights     526
Poverty     527
Armed Conflict     527
HIV/AIDS     527
Other Risks Faced by Children     527
International Efforts to Alleviate the Plight of Children     528
The Plight of World Refugees     529
Immigration in the United States     530
Lawful Entry     530
Unlawful Entry     531
A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy and Legislation     531
The International Federation of Social Workers     534
International Social Work Organizations and Agencies     536
A Look to the Future     538
The Past as Prologue     538
The Challenges of Today     539
Trends in Social Work Careers     542
Summary     544
Key Terms and Infotrac College Edition     545
Discussion Questions     545
On the Internet      546
References     546
Suggested Further Readings     548
A Final Word to Our Readers     549
Glossary     550
Index     568

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