Sociology, Books a la Carte Edition / Edition 16

Sociology, Books a la Carte Edition / Edition 16

by John J. Macionis
ISBN-10:
0134157931
ISBN-13:
9780134157931
Pub. Date:
01/26/2016
Publisher:
Pearson

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Overview

Sociology, Books a la Carte Edition / Edition 16

Sociology 13/e shows students how sociology is relevant in their daily lives. The new edition has an innovate new design, contemporary and relevant student applications, plus a wealth of supplemental material. This revision elevates Sociology's high standard of excellence, ensuring that it remains one of the foremost comprehensive introductory sociology resources for students and instructors alike.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780134157931
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/26/2016
Pages: 736
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

John J. Macionis was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania.

John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education.

In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis’ most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson).

John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college’s multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college’s faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students.

In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks.

Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, “I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher–a passion for teaching animates everything I do.”

At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal.

The Macionis family–John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney–live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York’s Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

It was just five or six years ago that people were beginning to talk about the Internet and the Information Revolution. Today, computers and other new technology already play a part in how people entertain themselves, stay in touch with others, shop for everything from gadgets to groceries, teach classes, and study for exams. One can only imagine the extent of the transformation that will unfold over the course of this new century.

Yet there remains a contradiction in calling this the "information age." No one doubts that students have more information available to them than ever before. But who can deny that students (especially young people just out of high school) still know little about their own society and even less about the larger world? It is here that old-fashioned sociology has a crucial part to play. By developing their sociological imagination, we help students see the shape of the society that guides their lives, as well as appreciate ever-present forces of change. This same imagination also lets them place this society in a global context, highlighting the worldwide structures and systems that affect us all.

The daily e-mail I receive from students in the United States and around the world stands as testimony to the power of sociology to transform people's lives. All instructors know the deep satisfaction of making a difference in the lives of our students. Indeed, there is no greater reward for our work, and, in my case, nothing is a better reason for reaching ever further with each new edition of the text. Therefore, I am delighted to offer this revision of Sociology, the discipline's most popular text,and a book that never stands still. In the eighth edition, Sociology is now better than ever, and includes an unmatched high-technology learning package.

The heart of this package is, of course, the book. As in the past, this eighth edition of Sociology is authoritative, comprehensive, stimulating, and—as students' daily e-mail messages testify—plain fun to read. This major revision elevates sociology's most popular text to a still higher standard of excellence, and offers an unparalleled resource to today's students as they learn about both our diverse society and the changing world.

But the book is only one part of a complete learning package. Found in the back of every new copy of Sociology, Eighth Edition, is a CD-ROM, included at no additional cost to the student. This CD-ROM is the best of its kind—not only does it contain a full study guide and approximately 80 percent of the textbook, but it also includes fully interactive study features such as author's tip videos, multimedia chapter introductions, interactive maps, video applications, a full glossary, and hundreds of links to Web sites around the world. Simply put, no other CD-ROM offers as much that is as good as this one.

A major innovation in the way students learn in sociology will be our new Sociology Place Web site at ...

Table of Contents

IN THIS SECTION:
1.) BRIEF
2.) COMPREHENSIVE

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS:


Part I The Foundations of Sociology

Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective

Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation

Part II The Foundations of Society

Chapter 3 Culture

Chapter 4 Society Chapter 5 Socialization Chapter 6 Social Interaction in Everyday Life Chapter 7 Groups and Organizations Chapter 8 Sexuality and Society Chapter 9 Deviance

Part III Social Inequality

Chapter 10. Social Stratification Chapter 11 Social Class in the United States Chapter 12 Global Stratification Chapter 13 Gender Stratification Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity Chapter 15 Aging and the Elderly

Part IV Social Institutions

Chapter 16 The Economy and Work Chapter 17 Politics and Government Chapter 18 Families

Chapter 19 Religion Chapter 20 Education Chapter 21 Health and Medicine

Part V Social Change

Chapter 22 Population, Urbanization, and Environment Chapter 23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Chapter 24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies

COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part I The Foundations of Sociology

Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective

The Sociological Perspective

Seeing the General in the Particular

Seeing the Strange in the Familiar

Seeing Society in Our Everyday Lives

Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisis

The Importance of a Global Perspective

Applying the Sociological Perspective

Sociology and Public Policy

Sociology and Personal Growth

Careers: The "Sociology Advantage"

The Origins of Sociology

Social Change and Sociology

Science and Sociology

Sociological Theory

The Structural-Functional Approach

The Social-Conflict Approach

Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approach

The Race-Conflict Approach

The Symbolic-Interaction Approach

Applying the Approaches: The Sociology of Sports

The Functions of Sports

Sports and Conflict
Sports as Interaction

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation

Basics of Sociological Investigation

Science as One Form of Truth

Common Sense versus Scientific Evidence

Three Ways to Do Sociology

Positivist Sociology

Interpretive Sociology

Critical Sociology

Research Orientations and Theory

Gender and Research

Research Ethics

Methods of Sociological Research

Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment

Asking Questions: Survey Research

In the Field: Participant Observation

Using Available Data: Existing Sources

The Interplay of Theory and Method

Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Investigation

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Part II The Foundations of Society

Chapter 3 Culture

What is Culture?

Culture and Human Intelligence

Culture, Nation, and Society

How Many Cultures?

The Elements of Culture

Symbols

Language

Values and Beliefs

Norms

Ideal and Real Culture

Material Culture and Technology

New Information Technology and Culture

Cultural Diversity: Many Ways of Life in One World

High Culture and Popular Culture

Subculture

Multiculturalism

Counterculture

Cultural Change

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

A Global Culture?

Theoretical Analysis of Culture

The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Analysis

Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Analysis

Evolution and Culture: Sociobiology

Culture and Human Freedom

Culture as Constraint

Culture as Freedom

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 4 Society
Gerhard Lenski: Society and Technology
Hunting and Gathering Societies
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
Agrarian Societies
Industrial Societies
Postindustrial Societies
The Limits of Technology Karl Marx: Society and Conflict
Society and Production
Conflict and History
Capitalism and Class Conflict
Capitalism and Alienation
Revolution Max Weber: The Rationalization of Society
Two Worldviews: Tradition and Rationality
Is Capitalism Rational?
Weber's Great Thesis: Protestantism and Capitalism
Rational Social Organization Emile Durkheim: Society and Function
Structure: Society beyond Ourselves
Function: Society as System
Personality: Society in Ourselves
Modernity and Anomie
Evolving Societies: The Division of Labor Critical Review: Four Visions of Society
What Holds Societies Together?
How Have Societies Changes?
Why Do Societies Change?
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade

Chapter 5 Socialization
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity
Human Development: Nature and Nurture
Social Isolation Understanding Socialization
Sigmund Freud's Elements of Personality
Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Gender and Moral Development
Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development
George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self
Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of Development Agents of Socialization
The Family
The School
The Peer Group
The Mass Media Socialization and the Life Course
Childhood
Adolescence
Adulthood
Old Age
Death and Dying
The Life Course: Patterns and Variations Resocialization: Total Institutions Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade

Chapter 6 Social Interaction in Everyday Life
Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living Status
Status Set
Ascribed and Achieved Status
Master Status Role
Role Set
Role Conflict and Role Strain
Role Exit The Social Construction of Reality
"Street Smarts"
The Thomas Theorem
Ethnomethodology
Reality Building: Class and Culture Dramaturgical Analysis: The "Presentation of Self"
Performances
Nonverbal Communication
Gender and Performances
Idealization
Embarassment and Tact Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications
Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling
Language: The Social Construction of Gender
Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade

Chapter 7 Groups and Organizations
Social Groups
Primary and Secondary Groups
Group Leadership
Group Conformity
Reference Groups
In-Groups and Out-Groups
Group Size
Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender
Networks Formal Organizations
Types of Formal Organizations
Origins of Formal Organizations
Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Organizational Environment
The Informal Side of Bureaucracy

Problems of Bureaucracy

Oligarchy

The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Scientific Management

The First Challenge: Race and Gender

The Second Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work

The "McDonalization" of Society

The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 8 Sexuality and Society

Understanding Sexuality

Sex: A Biological Issue

Sex and the Body

Sex: A Cultural Issue

The Incest Taboo

Sexual Attitudes in the United States

The Sexual Revolution

The Sexual Counterrevolution

Premarital Sex

Sex between Adults

Extramarital Sex

Sex over the Life Course

Sexual Orientation

What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation?

How Many Gay People Are There?

The Gay Rights Movement

Sexual Issues and Controversies

Teen Pregnancy

Pornography

Prostitution

Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape

Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality

Structural-Functional Analysis

Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 9 Deviance

What Is Deviance?

Social Control

The Biological Context

Personality Factors

The Social Foundations of Deviance

The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysis

Durkheim’s Basic Insight

Merton’s Strain Theory

Deviant Subcultures

Labeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

Labeling Theory

The Medicalization of Deviance

Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory

Hirschi’s Control Theory

Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis

Deviance and Power

Deviance and Capitalism

White-Collar Crime

Corporate Crime

Organized Crime

Deviance, Race, and Gender

Hate Crimes

The Feminist Perspective: Deviance and Gender

Crime

Types of Crime

Criminal Statistics

The Street Criminal: A Profile

Crime in Global Perspective

The U.S. Criminal Justice System

Due Process

Police

Courts

Punishment

The Death Penalty

Community-Based Corrections

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Part III Social Inequality


Chapter 10 Social Stratification

What Is Social Stratification?

Caste and Class Systems

The Caste System

The Class System

Caste and Class: The United Kingdom

Another Example: Japan

Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Union

China: Emerging Social Classes

Ideology: The Power behind Stratification

The Functions of Social Stratification

The Davis-Moore Thesis

Stratification and Conflict

Karl Marx: Class Conflict

Why No Marxist Revolution?

Max Weber: Class, Status, and Power

Stratification and Interaction

Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective

Hunting and Gathering Societies

Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societies

Industrial Societies

The Kuznets Curve

Social Stratification: Facts and Values

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 11 Social Class in the United States

Dimensions of Social Inequality

Income

Wealth

Power

Occupational Prestige

Schooling

U.S. Stratification: Merit and Caste

Ancestry

Race and Ethnicity

Gender

Social Classes in the United States

The Upper Class

The Middle Class

The Working Class

The Lower Class

The Difference Class Makes

Health

Values and Attitudes

Politics

Family and Gender

Social Mobility

Research on Mobility

Seeing Sociology in the News “The End of Upward Mobility?”

Mobility by Income Level

Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender

Mobility and Marriage

The American Dream: Still a Reality?

The Global Economy and the U.S. Class Structure

Poverty in the United States

The Extent of Poverty

Who Are the Poor?

Explaining Poverty

The Working Poor

Homelessness

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 12 Global Stratification

Global Stratification: An Overview

A Word about Terminology

High-Income Countries

Middle-Income Countries

Low-Income Countries

Global Wealth and Poverty

The Severity of Poverty

The Extent of Poverty

Poverty and Children

Poverty and Women

Slavery

Explanations of Global Poverty

Global Stratification: Theoretical Analysis

Modernization Theory

Dependency Theory

Global Stratification: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 13 Gender Stratification

Gender and Inequality

Male-Female Differences

Gender in Global Perspective

Patriarchy and Sexism

Gender and Socialization

Gender and the Family

Gender and the Peer Group

Gender and Schooling

Gender and the Mass Media

Gender and Social Stratification

Working Women and Men

Gender, Income, and Wealth

Housework: Women’s “Second Shift”

Gender and Education

Gender and Politics

Gender and the Military

Are Women a Minority?

Minority Women: Intersection Theory

Violence against Women

Violence against Men

Sexual Harassment

Pornography

Theoretical Analysis of Gender

Structural-Functional Analysis

Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

Social-Conflict Analysis

Feminism

Basic Feminist Ideas

Types of Feminism

Opposition to Feminism

Gender: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity

The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity

Race

Ethnicity

Minorities

Prejudice and Stereotypes

Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale

Racism

Theories of Prejudice

Discrimination

Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination

Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle

Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction

Pluralism

Assimilation

Segregation

Genocide

Race and Ethnicity in the United States

Native Americans

White Anglo-Saxon Protestants

African Americans

Asian Americans

Hispanic Americans/Latinos

Arab Americans

White Ethnic Americans

Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 15 Aging and the Elderly

The Graying of the United States

Birth Rate: Going Down

Life Expectancy: Going Up

An Aging Society: Cultural Change

The “Young Old” and the “Old Old”

Growing Old: Biology and Culture

Biological Changes

Psychological Changes

Aging and Culture

Age Stratification: A Global Survey

Transitions and Challenges of Aging

Finding Meaning

Social Isolation

Retirement

Aging and Poverty

Caregiving

Ageism

The Elderly: A Minority?

Theoretical Analysis of Aging

Structural-Functional Analysis: Aging and Disengagement

Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: Aging and Activity

Social-Conflict Analysis: Aging and Inequality

Death and Dying

Historical Patterns of Death

The Modern Separation of Life and Death

Ethical Issues: Confronting Death

Bereavement

Aging: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Part IV Social Institutions


Chapter 16 The Economy and Work

The Economy: Historical Overview

The Agricultural Revolution

The Industrial Revolution

The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society

Sectors of the Economy

The Global Economy

Economic Systems: Paths to Justice

Capitalism

Socialism

Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism

Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism

Changes in Socialist and Capitalist Countries

Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy

The Decline of Agricultural Work

From Factory Work to Service Work

The Dual Labor Market

Labor Unions

Professions

Self-Employment

Unemployment and Underemployment

The Underground Economy

Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender

Information Technology and Work

Corporations

Economic Concentration

Conglomerates and Corporate Linkages

Corporations: Are They Competitive?

Corporations and the Global Economy

The Economy: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 17 Politics and Government

Power and Authority

Traditional Authority

Rational-Legal Authority

Charismatic Authority

Politics in Global Perspective

Monarchy

Democracy

Authoritarianism

Totalitarianism

A Global Political System?

Politics in the United States

U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State

The Political Spectrum

Special-Interest Groups

Voter Apathy

Should Convicted Criminals Vote?

Theoretical Analysis of Power in Society

The Pluralist Model: The People Rule

The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule

The Marxist Model: The System Is Biased

Power beyond the Rules

Revolution

Terrorism

War and Peace

The Causes of War

Social Class and the Military

Is Terrorism a New Kind of War?

The Costs and Causes of Militarism

Nuclear Weapons

Mass Media and War

Pursuing Peace

Politics: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 18 Families

Families: Basic Concepts

Families: Global Variations

Marriage Patterns

Residential Patterns

Patterns of Descent

Patterns of Authority

Theoretical Analysis of Families

Functions of the Family: Structural-Functional Analysis

Inequality and the Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis

Stages of Family Life

Courtship

Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage

Child Rearing

The Family in Later Life

U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender

Social Class

Ethnicity and Race

Gender

Transitions and Problems in Family Life

Divorce

Remarriage and Blended Families

Family Violence

Alternative Family Forms

One-Parent Families

Cohabitation

Gay and Lesbian Couples

Singlehood

New Reproductive Technologies and Families

Families: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 19 Religion

Religion: Basic Concepts

Religion and Sociology

Theoretical Analysis of Religion

Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysis

Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Analysis

Religion and Social Change

Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism

Liberation Theology

Types of Religious Organizations

Church

Sect

Cult

Religion in History

Religion in Preindustrial Societies

Religion in Industrial Societies

World Religions

Christianity

Islam

Judaism

Hinduism

Buddhism

Confucianism

Religion: East and West

Religion in the United States

Religious Affiliation

Religiosity

Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and Race

Religion in a Changing Society

Changing Affiliation

Secularization

Civil Religion

“New Age” Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion

Religious Revival: “Good Old-Time Religion”

Religion: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 20 Education

Education: A Global Survey

Schooling and Economic Development

Schooling in India

Schooling in Japan

Schooling in Great Britain

Schooling in the United States

The Functions of Schooling

Socialization

Cultural Innovation

Social Integration

Social Placement

Latent Functions of Schooling

Schooling and Social Interaction

The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Schooling and Social Inequality

Social Control

Standardized Testing

School Tracking

Inequality among Schools

Access to Higher Education

Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Education

Privilege and Personal Merit

Problems in the Schools

Discipline and Violence

Student Passivity

Dropping Out

Academic Standards

Grade Inflation

Current Issues in U.S. Education

School Choice

Home Schooling

Schooling People with Disabilities

Adult Education

The Teacher Shortage

Schooling: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 21 Health and Medicine

What Is Health?

Health and Society

Health: A Global Survey

Health in Low-Income Countries

Health in High-Income Countries

Health in the United States

Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Race

Cigarette Smoking

Eating Disorders

Obesity

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Ethical Issues surrounding Death

The Medical Establishment

The Rise of Scientific Medicine

Holistic Medicine

Paying for Medical Care: A Global Survey

Paying for Medical Care: The United States

The Nursing Shortage

Theoretical Analysis of Health and Medicine

Structural-Functional Analysis: Role Theory

Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: The Meaning of Health

Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis: Health and Inequality

Health and Medicine: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Part V Social Change

Chapter 22 Population, Urbanization, and Environment

Demography: The Study of Population

Fertility

Mortality

Migration

Population Growth

Population Composition

History and Theory of Population Growth

Malthusian Theory

Demographic Transition Theory

Global Population Today: A Brief Survey

Urbanization: The Growth of Cities

The Evolution of Cities

The Growth of U.S. Cities

Suburbs and Urban Decline

Postindustrial Sunbelt Cities

Megalopolis: The Regional City

Edge Cities

The Rural Rebound

Urbanism as a Way of Life

Ferdinand Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

Georg Simmel: The Blasé Urbanite

The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth

Urban Ecology

Urban Political Economy

Urbanization in Poor Nations

Environment and Society

The Global Dimension

Technology and the Environmental Deficit

Culture: Growth and Limits

Solid Waste: The Disposable Society

Water and Air

The Rain Forests

Environmental Racism

Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and World

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements

Studying Collective Behavior

Localized Collectivities: Crowds

Mobs and Riots

Crowds, Mobs, and Social Change

Explaining Crowd Behavior

Dispersed Collectivities: Mass Behavior

Rumor and Gossip

Public Opinion and Propaganda

Fashions and Fads

Panic and Mass Hysteria

Disasters

Social Movements

Types of Social Movements

Claims Making

Explaining Social Movements

Gender and Social Movements

Stages in Social Movements

Social Movements and Social Change

Social Movements: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Chapter 24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies

What Is Social Change?

Causes of Social Change

Culture and Change

Conflict and Change

Ideas and Change

Demographic Change

Modernity

Four Dimensions of Modernization

Ferdinand Tönnies: The Loss of Community

Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor

Max Weber: Rationalization

Karl Marx: Capitalism

Theoretical Analysis of Modernity

Structural-Functional Theory: Modernity as Mass Society

Social-Conflict Theory: Modernity as Class Society

Modernity and the Individual

Modernity and Progress

Modernity: Global Variation

Postmodernity

Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Sample Tests

Glossary

References

Subject Index

Timeline, BEP-1

Preface

PREFACE

It was just five or six years ago that people were beginning to talk about the Internet and the Information Revolution. Today, computers and other new technology already play a part in how people entertain themselves, stay in touch with others, shop for everything from gadgets to groceries, teach classes, and study for exams. One can only imagine the extent of the transformation that will unfold over the course of this new century.

Yet there remains a contradiction in calling this the "information age." No one doubts that students have more information available to them than ever before. But who can deny that students (especially young people just out of high school) still know little about their own society and even less about the larger world? It is here that old-fashioned sociology has a crucial part to play. By developing their sociological imagination, we help students see the shape of the society that guides their lives, as well as appreciate ever-present forces of change. This same imagination also lets them place this society in a global context, highlighting the worldwide structures and systems that affect us all.

The daily e-mail I receive from students in the United States and around the world stands as testimony to the power of sociology to transform people's lives. All instructors know the deep satisfaction of making a difference in the lives of our students. Indeed, there is no greater reward for our work, and, in my case, nothing is a better reason for reaching ever further with each new edition of the text. Therefore, I am delighted to offer this revision of Sociology, the discipline's most popular text, and a book thatnever stands still. In the eighth edition, Sociology is now better than ever, and includes an unmatched high-technology learning package.

The heart of this package is, of course, the book. As in the past, this eighth edition of Sociology is authoritative, comprehensive, stimulating, and—as students' daily e-mail messages testify—plain fun to read. This major revision elevates sociology's most popular text to a still higher standard of excellence, and offers an unparalleled resource to today's students as they learn about both our diverse society and the changing world.

But the book is only one part of a complete learning package. Found in the back of every new copy of Sociology, Eighth Edition, is a CD-ROM, included at no additional cost to the student. This CD-ROM is the best of its kind—not only does it contain a full study guide and approximately 80 percent of the textbook, but it also includes fully interactive study features such as author's tip videos, multimedia chapter introductions, interactive maps, video applications, a full glossary, and hundreds of links to Web sites around the world. Simply put, no other CD-ROM offers as much that is as good as this one.

A major innovation in the way students learn in sociology will be our new Sociology Place Web site at. Produced by Peregrine Publishers and Prentice Hall, it is a new supersite for the discipline of sociology and is free to each student who buys a new copy of the textbook. The site has thousands of study questions, video clips, animations, news articles, a career center, a writing center, and a link library. It is updated weekly by our board of editors who are consistently contributing content to make this site a dynamic entity from which students will gain a clearer understanding of the sociological perspective.

In addition, also at no cost to them, students using Sociology, Eighth Edition, can log on to a full-featured Web site at. From the main page, simply click on the cover of the text to access this learning site, which includes chapter overviews and learning objectives, suggested essay questions, and paper topics, as well as multiple-choice and true-false questions that the server will grade, chapter-relevant Web destinations with learning questions, and a chat room where students can share experiences and opinions with others taking the course. Faculty will find a full complement of resources as well, including the syllabus manager system that allows posting a course syllabus to the Internet without having to learn hypertext markup language (HTML); the Prentice Hall server does the work for you.

Textbook, CD-ROM, and Web sites: A three-part, multimedia package that is the foundation for sound learning in this new information age. We invite you to examine all three!

ORGANIZATION OF THIS TEXT

Part I of the textbook and the CD introduces the foundations of sociology. Underlying the discipline is the sociological perspective—the focus of Chapter 1, which explains how this invigorating point of view brings the world to life in a new and instructive way. Chapter 2 spotlights sociological investigation, or the "doing of sociology." This heavily revised chapter explains the scientific, interpretive, and critical orientations of the discipline, and illustrates research strategies with well-known examples of sociological work. Learning how sociologists see the world and carry out research, students are no longer passive but become active participants exploring the discipline's issues, debates, and controversies.

Part II surveys the foundations of social life. Chapter 3 focuses on the central concept of culture, emphasizing the cultural diversity that makes up our society and our world. The focus of Chapter 4 is the concept of society, presenting four time-honored models for understanding the structure and dynamics of social organization. This unique chapter provides introductory students with the background to understand the ideas of important thinkers—including Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Gerhard Lenski—that appear in subsequent chapters. Alternatively, instructors may assign any of the chapter's four parts at any point in the course. Chapter 5 turns to socialization, exploring how we gain our humanity as we learn to participate in society. Chapter 6 provides a micro-level look at the patterns of social interaction that make up our everyday lives. Chapter 7 offers full-chapter coverage of groups and organizations, two additional and vital elements of social structure. This chapter, heavily revised this time around, provides a thorough investigation of the large organizations that have come to dominate our way of life. Chapter 8 explains how the operation of society generates both deviance and conformity, and also surveys the operation of the criminal justice system. Chapter 9, new to this edition, explains the social foundations of human sexuality. This chapter surveys sexual patterns in the United States and also explores variations in sexual practices through history and around the world today.

Part III offers unparalleled discussion of social inequality, beginning with three chapters on social stratification. Chapter 10 introduces major concepts and presents theoretical explanations of social inequality. This chapter richly illustrates historical changes in stratification, and how patterns of inequality vary in today's world. Chapter 11 surveys social inequality in the United States, confronting common perceptions of inequality and assessing how well they square with research findings. Chapter 12 extends the analysis with a look at global stratification, revealing the gaps in wealth and power that separate rich and poor nations. Both Chapters 11 and 12 pay special attention to how global developments affect stratification in the United States, just as they explore our society's role in global inequality. Chapter 13, gender stratification, explains how gender is a central element in social stratification in the United States, as it is worldwide. Race and ethnicity, additional important dimensions of social inequality both in North America and the rest of the world, are detailed in Chapter 14. Aging and the elderly, a topic of increasing concern to "graying" societies such as our own, is addressed in Chapter 15.

Part IV includes a full chapter on each social institution. Leading off is Chapter 16, the economy and work, because most sociologists recognize the economy as having the greatest impact on all other institutions. This chapter traces the rise and fall of industrial production in the United States and the emergence of a global economy, and explains what such transformations mean for the U.S. labor force. Chapter 17, politics and government, analyzes the distribution of power in U.S. society, as well as surveying political systems around the world. In addition, this chapter includes discussion of the U.S. military, the threat of war, and the search for peace. Chapter 18, family, explains the central importance of families to social organization, and underscores the diversity of family life both here and in other societies. Chapter 19, religion, addresses the timeless human search for ultimate purpose and meaning, introduces major world religions, and explains how religious beliefs are linked to other dimensions of social life. Chapter 20, education, analyzes the expansion of schooling in industrial societies. Here again, schooling in the United States comes to life through contrasts with educational patterns in many other countries. Chapter 21, health and medicine, reveals health to be a social issue just as much as it is a matter of biological processes. This chapter traces the historical emergence of medicine, analyzes current medical issues, and compares U.S. patterns to those found in other countries.

Part V examines important dimensions of global social change. Chapter 22 is a new chapter that highlights the powerful impact of population growth and urbanization in the United States and throughout the world with special attention to the natural environment. Chapter 23 explores forms of collective behavior and explains how people seek or resist social change by joining social movements. Chapter 24 concludes the text with an overview of social change that contrasts traditional, modern, and postmodern societies. This chapter rounds out the text, explaining how and why world societies change, and critically analyzing the benefits and liabilities of traditional, modern, and postmodern ways of life.

CONTINUITY: ESTABLISHED
FEATURES OF SOCIOLOGY

Everyone knows that introductory sociology texts have much in common; but differences run deep. The extraordinary success of Sociology and the brief version, Society: The Basics, which are far and away the most widely adopted texts in the discipline, results from a combination of the following distinctive features.

The best writing style. Most important, this text offers a writing style widely praised by students and faculty alike as elegant and inviting. Sociology is an enjoyable text that encourages students to read—even beyond their assignments. No one says it better than the students themselves, whose recent e-mail includes comments like these:

Thanks for writing such a brilliant book. It has
sparked my sociological imagination. This was
the first textbook that I have ever read completely
and enjoyed. From the moment that I picked
the book up I started reading nonstop.

I have read four chapters ahead; it's like a good
novel I can't put down! I just wanted to say
thank you.

I am taking a Sociology 101 class using Sociology,
Seventh Edition, a book that I have told my
professor is the best textbook that I have ever
seen, bar none. I've told her as well that I will be
more than happy to take more sociology classes as
long as there is a Macionis text to go with them.

A global perspective. Sociology has taken a leading role in expanding the horizons of our discipline beyond the United States. Sociology was the first text to mainstream global content, introduce global maps, and offer whole chapters on global topics like stratification and the environment. No wonder this text has been adapted and translated in many languages for use around the world. Each chapter explores the social diversity of the entire world as well as explaining why social trends in the United States-from musical tastes, to the price of wheat, to the growing disparity of income-are influenced by what happens elsewhere. Just as important, students will learn ways in which social patterns and policies in the United States affect poor nations around the world.

A celebration of social diversity. Sociology invites students from all social backgrounds to discover a fresh and exciting way to see the world and understand themselves. Readers will discover in this text the diversity of U.S. society-people of African, Asian, European, and Latino ancestry, as well as women and men of various class positions, in all parts of the country, and at all points in the life course. A recent, independent survey of all introductory books gave this text top marks for mainstreaming race and ethnicity (Stone, 1996).

Emphasis on critical thinking. Critical-thinking skills include the ability to challenge common assumptions by formulating questions, to identify and weigh appropriate evidence, and to reach reasoned conclusions. This text not only teaches but encourages students to discover on their own.

The broadest coverage so instructors can choose. No other text matches Sociology's twenty-four-chapter coverage of the field. We offer such breadth-at no greater cost-knowing that few instructors will assign every chapter, but with the goal of supporting instructors as they choose exactly what they wish to teach.

Engaging and instructive chapter openings. One of the most popular features of earlier editions of Sociology has been the engaging vignettes that begin each chapter. These openingsfor instance, using the tragic sinking of the Titanic to illustrate the life and death consequences of social inequality, or telling the story of Linda Brown to explore racial inequality in the United States, or describing textile sweatshops on U.S.controlled Pacific islands to examine the global economy-spark the interest of readers as they introduce important themes. This revision retains eight of the best chapter-opening vignettes found in earlier editions and offers sixteen new ones as well.

Inclusive focus on women and men. Beyond devoting two full chapters to the important concepts of sex and gender, Sociology mainstreams gender into every chapter, showing how the topic at hand affects women and men differently, and explaining how gender operates as a basic dimension of social organization. Theoretically clear and balanced. Sociology, Eighth Edition, makes theory easy. Chapter 1 introduces the discipline's major theoretical approaches, which systematically reappear in the chapters that follow. The text highlights not only the socialconflict, structural-functional, and symbolic-interaction paradigms, but incorporates feminist theory, social-exchange analysis, ethnomethodology, cultural ecology, and sociobiology.

Chapter 4-unique to this text-provides students with an easy-to-understand introduction to important social theorists before they encounter their work in later chapters. The ideas of Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Emile Durkheim, as well as Gerhard Lenski's historical overview of human societies, appear in distinct sections that instructors may assign together or refer to separately at different points in the course.

Recent research and the latest data. Sociology, Eighth Edition, blends classic sociological statements with the latest research as reported in the leading publications in the field. Some 250 new studies inform this revision, and most of the 1500 pieces of research cited throughout the book were published since 1990. From chapter to chapter, the text's statistical data are the most recent available.

All maps distort reality, since they portray a three-dimensional world in two dimensions. Most of us are familiar with the Mercator projection (devised by the Flemish mapmaker Gerhardus Mercator 1512-1594), which accurately presents the shape of countries (a vital concern to early seafaring navigators). But Mercator maps, like the one at left, distort the size of the land mosses (more so the farther they lie from the equator), thereby exaggerating the dimensions of Europe and North America. The Peters projection, at right, is used in this text because it accurately displays the size of all nations.

Learning aids. This text has many features to help students learn. In each chapter, Key Concepts are identified by boldfaced type, and following each appears a precise, italicized definition. A listing of key concepts with their definitions appears at the end of each chapter, and a complete Glossary is found at the end of the book. Each chapter also contains a numbered Summary and four Critical-Thinking Questions that help students review material and assess their understanding. Following these are a number of Applications and Exercises, which provide students with activities to do on or near the campus. Finally, each chapter ends with an annotated listing of worthwhile Sites to See on the Internet.

Outstanding images: photography and fine art. This book offers the finest and most extensive program of photography and artwork available in any sociology textbook. The eighth edition of Sociology displays more than 100 examples of fine art as well more than 300 color photographs-more than ever before. Each of these images is carefully selected by the author and appears with an insightful caption. Moreover, both photographs and artwork present people of various social backgrounds and historical periods. For example, alongside art by wellknown Europeans such as Vincent Van Gogh and U.S. artists including George Tooker, his edition has paintings by celebrated African American artists Jacob Lawrence and Henry Ossawa Tanner, outstanding Latino artists Frank Romero and Diego Rivera, and the engaging Australian painter and feminist Sally Swain.

Thought-provoking theme boxes. Although boxed material is common to introductory texts, Sociology, Eighth Edition, provides a wealth of uncommonly good boxes. Each chapter typically contains four boxes, which fall into five types that amplify central themes of the text. Global Sociology boxes provoke readers to think about their own way of life by examining the fascinating social diversity that characterizes our world. Social Diversity boxes focus on multicultural issues and amplify the voices of women and people of color. Applying Sociology boxes, new to this edition, show the value of applying the sociological perspective to the world around us-especially the work we do. Critical Thinking boxes teach students to ask sociological questions about their surroundings, and help them evaluate important, controversial issues. Each Critical-Thinking box is followed by three "What do you think?" questions. Controversy & Debate boxes conclude each chapter by presenting several points of view on an issue of contemporary importance. Three "Continue the debate" questions, which follow each box, are sure to stimulate spirited class discussion.

Sociology, Eighth Edition, contains ninety-three boxes in all. Fourteen are new and many more are revised and updated in this revision. A complete listing of this text's boxes appears after the table of contents.

An unparalleled program of sixty-seven global and national maps. One of the most populaY features of Sociology, Eighth Edition, is the program of global and national maps. Windows on the World Global Mapsthirty in all and many updated for this edition-are truly sociological maps offering a comparative look at income disparity, favored languages and religions, the extent of prostitution, permitted marriage forms, the degree of political freedom, the incidence of HIV infection, and a host of other issues. The Global Maps use the non-Eurocentric projection devised by cartographer Arno Peters that accurately portrays the relative size of all the continents. A complete listing of the Windows on the World Global Maps follows the table of contents.

Seeing Ourselves National Maps-thirty-seven in all, with twelve new to this edition-help to illuminate the social diversity of the United States. Most of these maps offer a close-up look at all 3,014 U.S. counties, highlighting suicide rates, per capita income, labor force participation, college attendance, divorce rates, teen pregnancy rates, most widespread religious affiliation, political apathy, and, as measures of popular culture, where baseball fans live or where households drink more wine or beer. Each National Map includes an explanatory caption that poses several questions to stimulate students' thinking about social forces. A complete listing of the Seeing Ourselves National Maps follows the table of contents.

INNOVATION: CHANGES
IN THE EIGHTH EDITION

Each new edition of Sociology has broken new ground, one reason that more than 2 million students have learned from this sociological best-seller. A revision raises high expectations, but, after several years of planning and hard work, we are pleased to offer a major revision that makes the text better than ever. Here is a brief overview of the innovations that define Sociology, Eighth Edition:

New technology that keeps getting better! Last time around, we offered the first complete high-tech learning package, combining a text, CD-ROM, and Companion WebsiteTM. New to this edition is a supersite for sociology called Sociology Place. Put the text, the CDROM, and the Web sites together for more information and more ways to learn than ever before. For additional details on all our textbooks as well as quick links to dozens of sociology sites, visit the author's personal Web site at or

A new chapter on sexuality. The eighth edition has a new chapter. Chapter 9 ("Sexuality") is a sociological look at a central dimension of human existence. The chapter begins by explaining the biological and cultural foundations of sexuality, surveys changing sexual attitudes in the United States, explores the myths and realities surrounding sexual orientation, and then explores sexual controversies including teen pregnancy, pornography, prostitution, and sexual violence. The chapter concludes with various theoretical analyses of sexuality.

A new synthesis: population, urbanization, and the environment. This revision draws three closely related issues together into a new combined chapter. Chapter 22 begins by outlining the study of population, moves to the steady rise in the share of humanity residing in cities, and then links both topics to the state of the physical environment.

A greater focus on applications. This text helps students apply the power of sociology to their present lives and future careers. We've added a set of Applying Sociology theme boxes (nineteen in all). Moreover, at the end of each chapter is a listing of Applications and Exercises that suggests ways students can apply lessons to their campus and community. Finally, many chapters in the new edition have major sections that apply the power of sociology to a wide range of current issues.

Sites to See. Another new feature to the eighth edition is a listing of worthwhile Internet sites. Placed at the end of each chapter along with explanatory annotations, these sites will introduce students to a wide range of organizations involved in relevant research or social action.

Major reworking of two chapters. Chapter 2 ("Sociological Investigation") and Chapter 7 ("Groups and Organizations") are both heavily revised to reflect recent changes in these important areas of study.

More maps! The only way to improve on our colorful maps is to provide more of them. This edition adds seven maps for a total of sixty-seven: thirty Window on the World global maps and thirty-seven Seeing Ourselves national maps. Fourteen of these maps are new to this edition.

New chapter-opening vignettes. This revision keeps the best of the popular chapter-opening vignettes and adds sixteen new ones; overall, two-thirds of the openings are new to this edition.

Many new boxes. A total of ninety-three boxes supports five themes of the text: Global Sociology, Social Diversity, Critical Thinking, Applying Sociology, and, focusing on social policy, Controversy & Debate. Many boxes are revised and updated; fourteen boxes are new to this edition.

The latest statistical data. Instructors count on this text for including the very latest statistical data. The eighth edition comes through again, making use of data from the Internet as well as conventional bound publications of various government agencies and private organizations. The author and Carol A. Singer, a professional government documents librarian at Bowling Green State University (Ohio), have worked together to ensure that the newest statistics are used throughout the text-in many cases for 1998, and even for 1999 and 2000. In addition, the author regularly reviews more than one dozen journals as well as media publications. The result: Readers will find 250 new research citations as well as references to many familiar current events.

New topics. The eighth edition of Sociology is completely updated with new and expanded discussions in every chapter. Here is a partial listing, by chapter:

• Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective: A new chapter opening contrasts the rich and poor in Boston, Massachusetts; the applied material includes three Applying Sociology boxes; there are updates of suicide patterns in the United States and around the world; the discussion of social change and the emergence of sociology has been reorganized; find an update on women in professional sports as well as a new Diversity Snapshot figure on racial stereotyping and football; the chapter concludes with an updated and expanded listing of Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

• Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation: With a major rewrite, the discussion now contrasts scientific sociology, interpretive sociology, and critical sociology to better reflect the multimethodological character of the discipline today; a new Applying Sociology box shows how small changes in wording affect responses to survey questions; the chapter ends with an updated and expanded list of Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

• Chapter 3 Culture: A new chapter opening traces the rise of hiphop culture; new national maps showing beer and wine consumption illustrate high and popular culture; many updated examples and illustrations are found throughout the chapter; the chapter ends with an updated and expanded list of Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

• Chapter 4 Society: The chapter opening includes an update on Africa's Tuareg nomads; a new global map shows computer use around the world; several new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See are found at the end of the chapter.

• Chapter 5 Socialization: This chapter includes an update on U.S. television watching, a new National Map on newspaper readership across the United States, and recent research on television and violence; a new figure highlights young people's trust in parents; expanded and updated Applications and Exercises are included as well as numerous new Sites to See.

• Chapter 6 Social Interaction in Everyday Life: This chapter now has more emphasis on applications throughout; a new Applying Sociology box asks if we can detect when someone is lying and features photos that compare real and false expressions; an expanded Applications and Exercises section includes new on-campus activities; there are also several new Web destinations in the Sites to See.

• Chapter 7 Groups and Organizations: A major reorganization of this chapter adds discussion of early scientific management and traces the evolution of organizations toward a flatter, flexible, "intelligent" form; the chapter also contrasts the rise of intelligent organizations doing highly skilled postindustrial work with the countertrend toward low-skill service work often called "Mcjobs."

• Chapter 8 Deviance: A new chapter opening points out weaknesses in the criminal justice system; there are new sections on corporate crime and organized crime; all crime statistics are updated; there is a new Applying Sociology box explaining the recent decline in violent crime; the chapter ends with new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

• Chapter 9 Sexuality: This new chapter highlights the socially constructed character of human sexuality; the chapter takes a global view of sexuality and also surveys a number of sexuality issues, from sexual orientation to sexual violence; there are several new boxes, a new national map on births to teenage women, and new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

• Chapter 10 Social Stratification: This chapter has a reorganized discussion of caste and class; recent changes in the British aristocracy are noted; also updated is discussion of the salaries of corporate CEOs in the United States; new Applications and Exercises and new Sites to See conclude the chapter.

• Chapter 11 Social Class in the United States: A new opening contrasts California's Silicon Valley wealth with New York's Lower East Side poverty; find updates on income and wealth disparity in the United States; there are new data tracking rising African American affluence; the chapter concludes with new Applications and Exercises and new Sites to See.

• Chapter 12 Global Stratification: A new opening profiles wage slavery in the sweatshops of a Pacific territory controlled by the United States; a dramatic new box describes the culture of slavery in North Africa; the chapter includes updates on global wealth and wellbeing; several new Sites to See direct students to sources of global data and further study.

• Chapter 13 Gender Stratification: A new chapter opening highlights the 1848 Seneca Falls convention and the women's movement it began; a new box investigates female circumcision; the chapter includes statistical updates on women's pay, schooling, and jobs; a new Diversity Snapshot figure details who does the housework in the United States; many of the Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See are new.

• Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity: Anew Social Diversity box highlights the role played by immigrants in the U.S. economy; the chapter adds a new National Map showing the lands controlled by Native Americans at four points over the last two hundred years; updated statistics reflect the social standings of all racial and ethnic categories in the United States; several new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See end the chapter.

• Chapter 15 Aging and the Elderly: A new chapter opening highlights the changing (and younger) face of the elderly in the United States; a new section examines the expansion of caregiving in an aging society; there are data updates on the social standing of the elderly throughout the chapter; the entire discussion now offers a more positive take on the aging process.

• Chapter 16 The Economy and Work: There is a new chapter opening on the trend toward using temporary workers; find updated statistics on the U.S. labor force-including unemployment rates and the gender, racial, and ethnic composition of the labor force; a new Applying Sociology box highlights corporate welfare; we've added another National Map showing where jobs will be a decade from now; several new Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See complete the chapter.

• Chapter 17 Politics and Government: The chapter includes an update on political freedom around the world; a Global Sociology box provides an update on the politics of Singapore; a new National Map shows where young adults do and do not vote in the United States; there is an update on nuclear proliferation worldwide; the new Sites to See includes Web pages of several organizations concerned with human rights around the world.

• Chapter 18 Family: A new chapter opening presents a "family values" court case in Pakistan that pitted young lovers against traditional parents; a research update reports on the causes and consequences of cohabiting; a new Critical Thinking box evaluates the covenant marriage law in Louisiana; there are statistical updates on all the trends regarding family life as well as new Exercises and Applications and Sites to See.

• Chapter 19 Religion: A new chapter opening profiles the rising number of Muslims in the United States; a new Critical Thinking box looks at the resurgence of prayer in school; find many statistical updates on various measures of religiosity; a new National Map shows membership in religious organizations across the United States; a number of new Sites to See explore the role of religion in addressing social problems.

• Chapter 20 Education: Anew chapter opening looks at a controversial school-funding law m Vermont; a new National Map shows the high school dropout rate across the country; a new Social Diversity box explores the "savage inequalities" of U.S. education; statistical updates are included for all measures of educational achievement; the chapter reports on recent trends in the school choice debate.

• Chapter 21 Health and Medicine: A new chapter opening describes what happened to women on the island of Fiji after the arrival of television in 1995; a new Global Sociology box describes the free-fall in life expectancy among men following the collapse of the former Soviet Union; the chapter updates all health statistics; listed among the Sites to See are three Web destinations exploring how socially conscious doctors are combating poverty and disease around the world.

• Chapter 22 Population, Urbanization, and Environment: This chapter is a new combination of population, urbanization, and environment; a new chapter opening reports on the rapid urban development in Atlanta; find the latest global population figures as well as new demographic data for the United States; there is an update on the development of urban regions and urban sprawl; throughout the chapter the focus is on the interplay of population, urbanization, and the physical environment; many new Applications and Exercises as well as Sites to See complete the chapter.

• Chapter 23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements: A new chapter-opening vignette illustrates the mobilization of a social movement across the Internet; expanded coverage of the theories of social movements includes a new discussion of culture theory; several new Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See close the chapter.

• Chapter 24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies: A new chapter-opening vignette illustrates the extent of social change over the course of the twentieth century; a new Critical Thinking box evaluates the changing quality of life in the United States; there are many Applications and Exercises as well as new Sites to See.

A WORD ABOUT LANGUAGE

This text's commitment to representing the social diversity of the United States and the world carries with it the responsibility to use language thoughtfully. In most cases, we prefer the terms African American and person of color to the word black. We use the terms Hispanic and Latino to refer to people of Spanish descent. Most tables and figures refer to "Hispanics" because this is the term the Census Bureau uses when collecting statistical data about our population. Students should realize, however, that many individuals do not describe themselves using these terms. Although the term "Hispanic" is commonly used in the eastern part of the United States, and "Latino" and the feminine form "Latina" are widely heard in the West, across the United States people of Spanish descent identify with a particular ancestral nation, whether it be Argentina, Mexico, some other Latin American country, or Spain or Portugal in Europe.

The same holds for Asian Americans. Although this term is a useful shorthand in sociological analysis, most people of Asian descent think of themselves in terms of a specific country of origin (say, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or Vietnam).

In this text, the term "Native American" refers to all the inhabitants of the Americas (including the Hawaiian Islands) whose ancestors lived here prior to the arrival of Europeans. Here again, however, most people in this broad category identify with their historical society (for example, Cherokee, Hopi, or Zuni). The term "American Indian" designates only those Native Americans who live in the continental United States, not including Native peoples living in Alaska or Hawaii.

Learning to think globally also leads us to use language carefully. This text avoids the word "American" which literally designates two continents-to refer to just the United States. For example, when referring to this country, the term "U.S. economy" is more correct than the "American economy" This convention may seem a small point, but it implies the significant recognition that we in this country represent only one society (albeit a very important one) in the Americas.

A WORD ABOUT WEB SITES

Because of the increasing importance of the Internet, each chapter of this new edition of Sociology ends with a listing of Sites to See. The goal is to provide sites that are current, informative, and, above all, relevant to the sociological discussion at hand. However, students should be mindful of several potential problems.

First, Web sites change all the time. Prior to publication, we made every effort to ensure that the sites listed meet our standards. But readers may find that some sites have changed substantially or have gone away entirely. Obviously, this is a problem beyond our control.

Second, sites have been selected with the goal of providing different perspectives on various issues. The listing of a site does not imply that the author or publisher agrees with everything-or even anything-on the site. Indeed, we urge students to examine all sites critically.

Third, many of the Web sites listed in this text are popular. Because many people visit them, the sites may be slow in responding. Please be patient or, if a site is too busy, simply move on.

Finally, we welcome students and faculty to suggest sites to be included in future editions. You can send e-mail to the author at

SUPPLEMENTS

Sociology, Eighth Edition, is the heart of an unprecedented multimedia learning package that includes a wide range of proven instructional aids as well as several new ones. As the author of the text, I maintain a keen interest in all the supplements to ensure their quality and integration with the text. The supplements for this revision have been thoroughly updated, improved, and expanded.

FOR THE INSTRUCTOR

Annotated Instructor's Edition. The AIE is a complete student text annotated by the author on every page. Annotationswhich have been thoroughly revised for this edition-have won praise from instructors for enriching class presentations. Margin notes include summaries of research findings, statistics from the United States or other nations, insightful quotations, information highlighting patterns of social diversity in the United States, and high-quality survey data from the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) General Social Survey and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (CPSR) World Values Survey.

Data File. This is the "instructor's manual" that is of interest even to those who have never used one before. The Data File provides far more than detailed chapter outlines and discussion questions; it contains statistical profiles of the United States and other nations, summaries of important developments and significant research, and supplemental lecture material for every chapter of the text. The Data File is available in Windows format, as well as the traditional print version.

Test Item File. A revised test item file is available in both printed and computerized forms. The file contains 2400 items100 per chapter-in multiple-choice, true-false, and essay formats. Questions are identified as simple "recall" items or more complex inferential issues, and the answers to all questions are page referenced to the text. Prentice Hall Custom Test is a test generator designed to allow the creation of personalized exams. It is available in DOS, Windows, and Macintosh formats. Prentice Hall also provides a test preparation service to users of this text that is as easy as a call to our toll-free 800 number. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for this number.

Core Test Item File, Second Edition. This general test item file consists of over 350 additional test questions appropriate for introductory sociology courses. All of the questions have been class tested, and an item analysis is available for every question.

Film/Video Guide: Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology, Sixth Edition. Keyed to the chapters of this text, this guide describes more than 300 films and videos appropriate for classroom viewing. It also provides summaries, discussion questions, and rental sources for each film and video.

ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library for Sociology. Few will dispute that video is the most dynamic supplement you can use to enhance a class. However, the quality of the video material and how well it relates to your course still make all the difference. Prentice Hall and ABC News are working together to bring to you the best and most comprehensive video ancillaries available in the college market.

Through its wide variety of award-winning programs Nightline, Business World, On Business, This Week, orld News Tonight, 20/20, and The Health Show-ABC offers a resource for feature and documentary-style videos related to the chapters in Sociology, Eighth Edition. The programs have high production quality, present substantial content, and are hosted by well-versed, well-known anchors.

The authors and editors of Prentice Hall have carefully selected videos on topics that complement Sociology, Eighth Edition, and included notes on how to use them in the classroom. An excellent video guide in the Data File carefully arid completely integrates the videos into your lecture. The guide has a synopsis of each video showing its relation to the chapter and discussion questions to help students focus on how concepts and theories apply to real-life situations.

Volume I-Social Stratification Volume II-Marriage/Families Volume III-Race/Ethnic Relations Volume IV-Criminology Volume V-Social Problems Volume VI-Intro to Sociology I Volume VII-Intro to Sociology II Volume VIII-Intro to Sociology III Volume IX-Social Problems II Volume X-Marriage/Families II Volume XI-Race and Ethnic Relations II Volume XII-Institutions Volume XIII-Introductory Sociology IV Volume XIV-Introductory Sociology V

Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology PowerPointTM Transparencies. Created by Roger J. Eich of Hawkeye Community College, this PowerPoint slide set combines graphics and text in a colorful format to help you convey sociological principles in a new and exciting way. Created in PowerPoint, an easy-to-use, widely available software program, this set contains over 300 slides keyed to each chapter in the text.

Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VI. Full-color illustrations, charts, and other visual materials from the text as well as outside sources have been selected to make up this useful in-class tool.

Instructor's Guide to Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VI. This guide offers suggestions for using each transparency in the classroom.

MEDIA SUPPLEMENTS

Companion WebsiteTM. In tandem with the text, students and professors can now take full advantage of the Internet to enrich their study of sociology. The Macionis Companion WebsiteTM continues-to lead the way in providing students with avenues for delving deeper into the topics covered in the text. Features of the Web site include chapter objectives, study questions, faculty resources, as well as links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that will reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. Visit the site at and click on the cover of the Eighth Edition.

Online Learning Solutions. Prentice Hall is committed to providing the growing number of courses being delivered over the Internet by developing relationships with the leading vendorsBlackboard, Web CT, and ecollege.com, as well as our own course management system, Pearson CMS. Through these relationships, we provide premium, book-specific content in the delivery method of your choice. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative to find out more about our solutions in this area.

Sociology on the Internet: Evaluating Online Resources. This guide focuses on developing the critical-thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the discipline of sociology and how to use the companion Web sites for Sociology, Eighth Edition. This supplementary book is free to students when shrinkwrapped as a package with Sociology, Eighth Edition. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for your packaging options.

Sociology: Interactive Edition. Believing strongly that equal access to learning resources is as important as ever, Sociology: Interactive Edition offers students review and study material in a rich multimedia environment. The CD-ROM includes chapteropening introductions, video application exercises, interactive U.S. and global maps, substantial portions of the text, review questions, chapter summaries, and text-specific Web links. The CD-ROM is free to each student with the purchase of a new textbook.

FOR THE STUDENT

Study Guide. This complete guide helps students to review and reflect on the material presented in Sociology, Eighth Edition. Each of the twenty-four chapters in the Study Guide provides an overview of the corresponding chapter in the student text, summarizes its major topics and concepts, offers applied exercises, and features end-of-chapter tests with solutions.

The New York Times Supplement, Themes of the Times, for Introductory Sociology. The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information relevant to the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in this text is supplemented by a collection of timely articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times. These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us.

To enjoy the wealth of information of The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information, call toll-free 1-800-631-1222.

Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to cosponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic and involving process.

Critical Thinking Audiocassette Tape. In keeping with the text's critical-thinking approach, a sixty-minute audio tape is available to help students think and read critically.

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