Soils in Our Environment

Soils in Our Environment

Hardcover(Older Edition)

$126.67

Overview

Based on the most current scientific developments in all areas, this time-honored, broad introduction to soil sciences covers the complete spectrum of traditional and state-of-the-art soil topics–e.g., taxonomy, soil formation, properties of soils, common soil problems and their solutions, evaluation of soils, pollution from use of soils, precision agriculture, GIS and GPS. The volume examines soil composition and importance, soil's physical, water and chemical properties, organisms and their residues, soil formation and morphology, soil taxonomy, plant nutrients, soil fertility management, tillage systems and alternatives, soil erosion, water resources and irrigation, wetlands and land drainage, pollution of soil, water, and air, environmental integrity, soil surveys and land-use planning, greenhouse soils and soulless culture. For Environmental scientists, consultants and engineers, soil scientists, plant scientists, crop consultants, irrigation consultants, farmers and land developers.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780136108825
Publisher: Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Publication date: 06/28/1997
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 736
Product dimensions: 8.33(w) x 10.30(h) x 1.38(d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

The guiding purpose behind revisions for this 9th edition was to update and streamline the book without losing the thoroughness and readability it inherited from the senior author. Changes in content reflect the recent changes in soil taxonomy, the wealth of information in new on-line databases, and the strong interest in soil quality and sustainability. Dozens of new photos, figures, and tables have been added. An even larger number of older ones have been updated or eliminated. The resulting text is leaner (with fewer pages overall) and greener (placing greater emphasis on environmental integrity). More of the popular soil-related human interest stories have been included—for example: how political pressures threaten the family farm, how soil conditions affect cemeteries in New Orleans, and why a fungus in a Michigan forest should be counted among the world's largest organisms. Various sites on the Internet are referenced for readers seeking additional information. The tremendous value of these sites seems to outweigh the danger that their ephemeral nature may leave them inaccessible within a short time. As with previous editions of the book, this edition was written for students of agricultural and environmental sciences, preferably in the middle years of their undergraduate college experience. I sincerely hope that students and instructors find the book to be both functionally useful and intellectually engaging. Please e-mail your comments to duane.gardiner@tamuk.edu.

A special "thank you" is extended to the following reviewers for their valuable feedback and suggestions:

Kenneth Barbarick, Colorado StateUniversity
Del Dingus, Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo
Dennis McCallister, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Thomas McIntosh, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay
Dan Ross, Kent State University

Duane T. Gardiner

Table of Contents


Preface     xvii
Soil Composition and Importance     1
Preview and Important Facts     1
What Is Soil?     1
Components of Soil     3
Historical Perspectives     8
Soil-A Precious Resource     13
Soil Quality     21
Summary     24
Questions     25
For Further Study     25
Soil Physical Properties     26
Preview and Important Facts     26
Soil Texture     27
Rock Fragments     32
Soil Structure     32
Bulk Density     35
Soil Porosity and Permeability     37
Soil Air     40
Consistence (Strength)     43
Soil Color     43
Soil Temperature     48
Soil Physical Properties and Engineering     54
Summary     60
Questions     61
For Further Study     62
Soil Water Properties     63
Preview and Important Facts     63
Water Chemistry     64
Soil Water Content     65
Soil Water Potential and Availability     66
Soils as Water Reservoirs     75
Methods of Determining Water Content or Potential     75
Water Flow Into and Through Soils     81
Water Uptake by Plants     85
Consumptive Use and Water Efficiency     88
Reducing Water Loss     91
Summary     94
Questions     95
For Further Study     96
Soil Chemical Properties     97
Preview and Important Facts     97
Soil Clays     98
Organic Colloids (Humus)     110
Cation Exchange     110
Anion Exchange and Adsorption     116
Soil pH     117
Equilibrium and Buffering     121
Summary     122
Questions     123
For Further Study     123
Organisms and Organic Residues     124
Preview and Important Facts     124
Animalia: Rodents, Worms, and Insects     125
Plantae: Plants     129
Fungi: Molds, Mushrooms, and Mycorrhizae     130
Protista     133
Monera: Bacteria     134
Soil Viruses and Viroids     140
Conditions for Microbial Activity     141
Composition of Organic Matter      144
Decomposition of Organic Matter     145
Effects of Soil Organic Matter     149
Organic Waste Materials     153
Summary     157
Questions     158
For Further Study     158
Soil Formation and Morphology     159
Preview and Important Facts     159
Weathering of Soil Minerals     160
Soil Formation: Building a Matrix for Living Organisms     162
Soil-Forming Factors     163
Landforms and Soil Development     171
Morphology of Soil Horizons     181
Diagnostic Horizons     185
Degradation of Soils     188
Soil Individuals and Mapping Units     191
Summary     192
Questions     193
For Further Study     194
Soil Taxonomy     195
Preview and Important Facts     195
U.S. System of Soil Taxonomy     196
Constructing Taxonomic Names     200
Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes     200
Additional Terminology for Family Groupings     205
Distribution of Soil Orders     207
Soil Order: Gelisols (Soils with Permafrost)     208
Soil Order: Histosols (Organic Soils)     209
Soil Order: Entisols (Soils with Little or No Horizon Development)     210
Soil Order: Inceptisols (Soils with Weak Horizon Development)     212
Soil Order: Andisols (Young Volcanic Soils)     213
Soil Order: Aridisols (Desert Soils)     214
Soil Order: Mollisols (Prairie Soils)     216
Soil Order: Vertisols (Shrink-Swell Clays)     217
Soil Order: Alfisols (Fertile Soils with Subsoil Clay)     219
Soil Order: Spodosols (Soils with Humus under Sand)     221
Soil Order: Ultisols (Highly Leached Soils with Subsoil Clay)     222
Soil Order: Oxisols (Highly Oxidized Soils)     224
Other Soil Classification Systems     225
Summary     227
Questions     227
For Further Study     228
Acidic Soils and Salt-Affected Soils     229
Preview and Important Facts     229
Why Some Soils Are Acidic     230
Ecological Relation of Soil Acidity     233
Composition of Lime     233
Reactions of Lime Added to Acidic Soils     236
Crops, Lime, and Soil     237
Acidifying Soils     242
Soluble Salts and Plant Growth     243
Saline and Sodic Soils     246
Salt Balance     252
Reclaiming Salty Soils     254
Managing Salty Soils     258
Monitoring Salts in the Field     261
Summary     262
Questions     263
For Further Study     263
Plant Nutrients     264
Preview and Important Facts     264
Essential Elements     265
Mechanisms of Nutrient Uptake     265
Soil Nitrogen Gains and Transformations     267
Nitrogen Losses from the System     273
Nitrogen Balance     275
Materials Supplying Nitrogen     276
Soil Phosphorus     280
The Phosphorus Problem     280
Managing Soil Phosphorus     285
Materials Supplying Phosphorus     287
Soil Potassium     288
Soil Calcium     292
Soil Magnesium     293
Soil Sulfur     294
Soil Boron     296
Soil Chloride     299
Soil Copper     299
Soil Iron     300
Soil Manganese     303
Soil Molybdenum     304
Soil Zinc     305
Nickel and the Beneficial Elements     308
Summary     308
Questions     309
For Further Study     310
Soil Fertility Management     311
Preview and Important Facts     311
Goals and Concerns in Fertility Management     312
Scale of Land Management     313
Soil Sampling     316
Soil Tests     319
Analysis of Plants     325
Fertilizer Recommendations     329
Fertilizer Quality     332
Fertilizer Calculations     334
Techniques of Fertilizer Application     336
Fertilizer Efficiency     344
Livestock Manure as Fertilizer     348
Summary     354
Questions     355
For Further Study     355
Soil Erosion     356
Preview and Important Facts     356
The Soil Erosion Problem     358
Nature of Water Erosion     361
Factors Affecting Erosion by Water     364
Erosion Tolerance     368
Water Erosion Control     369
Nature of Wind Erosion     375
Factors Affecting Erosion by Wind     376
Wind-Erosion Control      378
Summary     381
Questions     382
For Further Study     382
Tillage and Farming Systems     383
Preview and Important Facts     383
Purposes for Tillage     385
Tillage Terminology     389
Reducing or Eliminating Tillage     391
Farming Systems and Environmental Quality     396
Transgenic Crops     397
Sustainable Agriculture and Organic Farming     401
Summary     405
Questions     406
For Further Study     406
Water Resources and Irrigation     407
Preview and Important Facts     407
Water Resources for Irrigation     408
Irrigation Water Quality     414
Meeting Water Needs of Plants     417
Methods of Applying Water     421
Special Irrigation Techniques     430
Irrigating Efficiently     433
Increasing Water Supplies     434
Summary     435
Questions     436
For Further Study     436
Wetlands and Land Drainage     437
Preview and Important Facts     437
Wetlands Trends and Laws      438
Wetlands Characteristics     440
Functions of Wetlands     443
Drainage to Improve Soil Conditions     445
Drainage Pros and Cons     447
Drainage System Selection     448
Surface Drainage Systems     449
Subsurface Drainage Systems     452
Summary     455
Questions     455
For Further Study     456
Pollution of Soil, Water, and Air     457
Preview and Important Facts     457
Threats to the Environment     458
Pollution Terminology     460
Plant Nutrients     461
Organic Wastes     464
Pesticides     469
Heavy Metals     472
Natural Toxins     474
Particulates and Gases     475
Radionuclides     481
Soluble Salts     482
Soil Sediments as Pollutants     483
Summary     484
Questions     485
For Further Study     485
Toward Environmental Integrity     487
Preview and Important Facts     487
Environmental Laws     489
Best Management Practices     490
Managing Organic Wastes     492
Reducing Pesticide Contamination     494
Improving Water Quality     500
Improving Air Quality     503
Improving Soil Quality     507
Remediation of Contaminated Soil     511
Summary     514
Questions     515
For Further Study     515
Soil Surveys and Land-Use Planning     517
Preview and Important Facts     517
Conducting a Soil Survey     518
Soil Survey Reports     518
Electronic Databases for Soils     523
Special Soil Designations     523
Land Evaluation     524
Data Interpretations for Soil Uses     529
Controlling Land Use     534
Summary     539
Questions     540
For Further Study     540
Greenhouse Soils and Soilless Culture     541
Preview and Important Facts     541
Root Media     542
Root Media Mixes     545
Pasteurization of Media     547
Watering     548
Fertilizing     549
Soil and Tissue Testing     550
Hydroponics: Solution Culture      551
Summary     555
Questions     557
For Further Study     557
Appendix A     559
Appendix B     564
Glossary     567
Index     591

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

The guiding purpose behind revisions for this 9th edition was to update and streamline the book without losing the thoroughness and readability it inherited from the senior author. Changes in content reflect the recent changes in soil taxonomy, the wealth of information in new on-line databases, and the strong interest in soil quality and sustainability. Dozens of new photos, figures, and tables have been added. An even larger number of older ones have been updated or eliminated. The resulting text is leaner (with fewer pages overall) and greener (placing greater emphasis on environmental integrity). More of the popular soil-related human interest stories have been included—for example: how political pressures threaten the family farm, how soil conditions affect cemeteries in New Orleans, and why a fungus in a Michigan forest should be counted among the world's largest organisms. Various sites on the Internet are referenced for readers seeking additional information. The tremendous value of these sites seems to outweigh the danger that their ephemeral nature may leave them inaccessible within a short time. As with previous editions of the book, this edition was written for students of agricultural and environmental sciences, preferably in the middle years of their undergraduate college experience. I sincerely hope that students and instructors find the book to be both functionally useful and intellectually engaging. Please e-mail your comments to duane.gardiner@tamuk.edu.

A special "thank you" is extended to the following reviewers for their valuable feedback and suggestions:

Kenneth Barbarick, ColoradoStateUniversity
Del Dingus, Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo
Dennis McCallister, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Thomas McIntosh, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay
Dan Ross, Kent State University

Duane T. Gardiner

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