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Solar Astrophysics / Edition 1

Solar Astrophysics / Edition 1

by Peter V. Foukal
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783527403745
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 04/28/2004
Edition description: 2nd, Revised Edition
Pages: 480
Product dimensions: 7.02(w) x 9.56(h) x 1.11(d)

About the Author

Peter V. Foukal is the founder and past-president of Cambridge Research and Instrumentation, Inc. He was awarded a NATO Senior Fellowship at Nice Observatory, France, in 1979, and has served as member or chairman of numerous panels and advisory boards of the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the National Academy of Sciences.

Table of Contents

1Development of the Ideas and Instruments of Modern Solar Research1
1.1Early Telescopic Discoveries on the Sun1
1.2The Spectroscope and Photography5
1.3Solar-Terrestial Research and the New Astronomy8
1.4Solar Chemical Composition and Energy Generation14
1.5The Mt. Wilson Era of Large Telescopes17
1.6Advances in Coronal Physics and in the Theory of Solar Activity22
1.7Observations at Radio, Ultraviolet, and X-Ray Wavelengths26
1.8The Solar Wind and Heliosphere28
1.9Future Directions in Solar Instrumentation30
2Radiative Transfer in the Sun's Atmosphere36
2.1Photometric Principles36
2.1.1The Radiative Intensity36
2.1.2The Net Outward Flux and the Solar Constant38
2.2The Radiative Transfer Equation41
2.2.1The Optical Depth and Source Function41
2.2.2Solution for Constant Source Function43
2.2.3Solution for a Linear Source Function: The Eddington-Barbier Relation44
2.3Thermodynamic Equilibrium47
2.3.1The Planck Function47
2.3.2Kirchhoff's Law48
2.3.3Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE)49
2.3.4The Brightness- and Effective Temperatures50
2.4The Gray Atmosphere50
2.4.1Formulation of the Problem50
2.4.2Gray Limb Darkening in the Eddington Approximation52
2.4.3The Photospheric Level Identified with Radiation at T[subscript eff]53
2.4.4Radiative Diffusion54
2.5Radiative Transfer in the Fraumhofer Lines55
2.5.1Formation of Fraunhofer Lines55
2.5.2The Transfer Equation for Lines56
2.5.3The Milne-Eddington Model57
2.5.4Comparison with Observations of Line Depth near Disk Center58
2.5.5Comparison with Observed Center-to-Limb Behavior60
3Solar Spectroscopy65
3.1A Survey of the Sun's Spectrum65
3.2Atomic Structure74
3.3Space Quantization and the Zeeman and Stark Effects78
3.3.1The Zeeman Effect79
3.3.2The Stark Effect84
3.4Multiplet Rules for Transitions86
3.5Atomic Transitions and their Excitation88
3.6Rates for Radiative Transitions90
3.7Boltzmann Equilibrium and the Saha Equation91
3.8Rate Equations in Statistical Equilibrium93
3.9Line Broadening95
3.9.1Thermal and Turbulent Doppler Broadening95
3.9.2Radiation Damping and Pressure Broadening97
3.9.3Broadening by Self-Absorption98
3.9.4Analysis of the Observed Profile of a Spectral Line98
3.10Molecules on the Sun100
4Dynamics of Solar Plasmas103
4.1Hydrostatic Equilibrium104
4.1.1Equilibrium in a Homogeneous Gravitational Field104
4.1.2Self-Gravitating Atmospheres105
4.1.3The Polytropic Approximation105
4.2The Equations of Motion107
4.2.1Euler's Equation107
4.2.2Viscous Forces and the Navier-Stokes Equation108
4.2.3The Equation of Continuity110
4.2.4The Heat-Balance Equation111
4.2.5Conservation of Total Energy114
4.3The Influence of Magnetic Fields in Solar Plasma Dynamics115
4.3.1The Lorentz Force115
4.3.2The Importance of Self-induction116
4.3.3The Diffusive and "Frozen-in" Approximations117
4.4Wave Motions in the Sun119
4.4.1Types of Waves Expected and Observed119
4.4.2Sound Waves119
4.4.3Simple Waves and Shock Formation120
4.4.4Properties of Shock Waves121
4.4.5Magnetohydrodynamic Waves123
4.4.6Internal Gravity Waves125
4.4.7Plasma Oscillations125
4.5Charged Particle Dynamics126
4.5.1Validity of the Continuum Approximation and of Thermal Equilibrium126
4.5.2Charged Particle Motions127
5The Photosphere133
5.1Observations of the Quiet Photosphere135
5.1.1Limb Darkening135
5.1.2Observed Properties of Granulation138
5.1.3The Supergranulation and Photospheric Network143
5.2Construction of a Photospheric Model146
5.2.1Physical Assumptions146
5.2.2Determination of the Temperature Profile from Continuum Limb Darkening147
5.3Determination of the Photospheric Opacity148
5.3.1The Empirical Technique148
5.3.2The Sources of Photospheric Opacity149
5.4Physical Structure and Energy Balance of the Photosphere150
5.4.1Models of Photospheric Structure150
5.4.2Comparison with Observations153
5.4.3Energy Transport Mechanisms in the Photosphere155
5.5The Photospheric Chemical Composition and the Curve of Growth156
5.5.1The Theoretical Curve of Growth157
5.5.2Comparison with the Empirical Curve160
5.6The Sun's Chemical Composition162
6The Sun's Internal Structure and Energy Generation167
6.1Equations of Stellar Structure168
6.1.1Mechanical Equilibrium168
6.1.2Energy Transport169
6.1.3Boundary Conditions170
6.2Physical Parameters Required for the Solution171
6.2.1Chemical Composition171
6.2.2The Mean Molecular Weight172
6.2.3The Ratio of Specific Heats172
6.2.4The Radiative Opacity173
6.2.5Energy Generation Processes174
6.3Nuclear Reactions in the Sun's Interior174
6.3.1Factors That Determine the Dominant Reactions174
6.3.2The Proton-Proton Chain175
6.3.3The Carbon-Nitrogen Cycle177
6.3.4Nuclear Energy Generation Rates179
6.4The Standard Model of Physical Conditions in the Solar Interior180
6.5Observational Tests of the Standard Model183
6.5.1Solar Neutrino Observations183
6.5.2Lithium and Beryllium Abundances186
6.5.3Stellar Structure and Evolution187
6.5.4Geological and Climatological Evidence189
6.5.5The Sun's Angular Momentum and Shape190
6.5.6Solar Oscillations191
7Rotation, Convection, and Oscillations in the Sun195
7.1Observations of Solar Rotation196
7.1.1Photospheric Doppler Measurements196
7.1.2Helioseismic Measurements of Rotation in the Solar Interior198
7.1.3Tracer Measurements199
7.2Measurements on Convection201
7.2.1Observations of Convection at the Photosphere201
7.2.2Comparison with Laboratory Measurements202
7.3Dynamics of Solar Convection and Rotation203
7.3.1Condition for Onset of Convection203
7.3.2Gravity Waves205
7.3.3Mixing Length Theory206
7.3.4Dynamics of Convection in a Plane Layer208
7.3.5Models of Granulation209
7.3.6Dynamics of Supergranulation212
7.3.7Dynamics of the Solar Interior212
7.4Observations of Solar Oscillations215
7.4.1The 5-min Oscillations215
7.4.2Oscillations of Longer and Shorter Periods219
7.5Interpretation of Solar Oscillations220
7.5.1Resonances in the Sun220
7.5.2Oscillation Modes of the Solar Interior223
7.5.3Excitation and Damping Mechanisms225
7.5.4Comparison of the Observed and Calculated Properties of the p-Modes226
7.5.5Oscillations as a Probe of the Solar Interior228
8Observations of Photospheric Activity and Magnetism233
8.1Sunspot Observations234
8.1.1Structure of the Umbra and Penumbra234
8.1.2Birth and Evolution of Spot Groups240
8.1.3Photometry and Spectra of Umbrae241
8.1.4Mass Motions and Oscillations244
8.2Dynamics of Spots247
8.2.1Thermal Structure of the Umbra247
8.2.2Why Spots Are Cool249
8.2.3Why Spots Cause Dips in the Solar Luminosity251
8.2.4Dynamics of Sunspot Evolution252
8.3.1Structure and Evolution254
8.3.2Physical Measurements254
8.3.3Why Faculae Are Bright259
8.4Observations of Solar Magnetism261
8.4.1The Sunspot Magnetic Field261
8.4.2Photospheric Fields in Faculae and Magnetic Network263
8.4.3Large-Scale Structure and Evolution of the Photospheric Field266
8.4.4Global Structure of the Sun's Magnetic Field272
9The Chromosphere and Corona277
9.1The Chromosphere278
9.1.1Observations of Structures and Motions at the Limb278
9.1.2Observations on the Disk281
9.1.3Physical Conditions288
9.1.4Energy Balance293
9.1.5Chromospheric Heating293
9.1.6Dynamics of Spicules and Fibrils295
9.2The Corona and Transition Region297
9.2.1Spectrum and Radiation Mechanisms297
9.2.2Structures of the Corona and Transition Region298
9.2.3Magnetic Fields and Plasma Motions303
9.2.4Physical Conditions in Closed and Open Magnetic Structures306
9.2.5Heating and Dynamics of Coronal Loops and Holes311
10Prominences and Flares319
10.1Prominences and Filaments320
10.1.1Observations and Physical Conditions320
10.2.1Observations and Physical Conditions331
10.2.2Energy Release and Dynamics344
10.2.3Acceleration of Energetic Charged Particles348
11Dynamics of the Solar Magnetic Field351
11.1Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes351
11.1.1Dynamical Equilibrium and Geometry351
11.1.2Dynamical Stability355
11.1.3Thermal Instability357
11.1.4Steady Flows358
11.1.5Oscillations and Waves360
11.1.6Magnetic Field Dissipation363
11.2Activity Behavior over the Solar Cycle365
11.2.1The Sunspot Number and Other Activity Indices365
11.2.2Time Behavior of the Sun's Magnetic Field367
11.1.3Long-Term Behavior of Solar Activity371
11.3Dynamics of the Solar Magnetic Cycle376
11.3.1The Babcock Model of the Solar Cycle376
11.3.2Dynamical Dynamo Models379
12The Solar Wind and Heliosphere387
12.1Structure of the Solar Wind388
12.1.1In Situ Measurements of Particles and Fields388
12.1.2Observations Out of the Ecliptic Plane393
12.1.3Cosmic Rays394
12.1.4Interplanetary Gas and Dust398
12.1.5Structure of the Heliosphere400
12.2Transient Features in the Solar Wind402
12.2.1High-Speed Streams402
12.2.2Interplanetary Shock Waves403
12.2.3Coronal Mass Ejections (CME's)405
12.3Dynamics of the Solar Wind407
12.3.1Thermal Conductivity of the Corona407
12.3.2Expansion of the Corona408
12.3.3Geometry of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field411
12.3.4Energy and Angular Momentum Fluxes412
12.3.5Sources of the Wind415
13The Sun, Our Variable Star421
13.1The Sun Compared to other Stars422
13.1.1The Sun's Location and Proper Motion in the Galaxy422
13.1.2Mass, Chemical Composition and Spectrum423
13.1.3Luminosity, Radius, and Effective Temperature424
13.1.4Chromospheric and Coronal Radiations425
13.1.5Stellar Winds and Mass Loss426
13.1.6Angular Momentum and Magnetism426
13.2Evolution of the Sun427
13.2.1The H-R Diagram and Stellar Evolution427
13.2.2The Sun's Future Evolution431
13.2.3The Early Sun433
13.3Solar and Stellar Variability438
13.3.1Observations of Stellar Activity438
13.3.2Mechanisms of Stellar Activity442
13.3.3The Sun's Variable Outputs446
13.3.4Prediction of Solar Activity and Space Weather453

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