ISBN-10:
0387731547
ISBN-13:
9780387731544
Pub. Date:
05/03/2008
Publisher:
Springer New York
Solar System Astrophysics: Background Science and the Inner Solar System / Edition 1

Solar System Astrophysics: Background Science and the Inner Solar System / Edition 1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780387731544
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 05/03/2008
Series: Astronomy and Astrophysics Library Series
Edition description: 2008
Pages: 258
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.40(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Eugene Milone has been Professor of Physics, Astronomy, and Astrophysics for 35 years, and has taught at the University of Calgary, San Diego State University, and Ruhr-Universität Bochum. He is a member of the International Astronomical Union, American Astronomical Society, Canadian Astronomical Society, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, New York Academy of Science, Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, International Dark Sky Society, and the International Symposia.

William Wilson has been Professor of Physics, Astronomy, and Astrophysics at the University of Calgary for 30 years. He has spent 15 years teaching courses in Solar System Astrophysics and Stellar Structure and Evolution. His research areas are stellar evolution and stellar properties.

Table of Contents


Perceptions of the Solar System in History     1
Basic Tools and Concepts     9
Circular Arcs and Spherical Astronomy     9
The Law of Cosines for a Spherical Triangle     11
Law of Sines for a Spherical Triangle     15
Other Laws     16
Applications     16
Properties of Ellipses     23
Celestial Mechanics     31
The Two-Body Problem     31
Orbital Elements     35
The Restricted Three-Body System     37
Computation of Ephemerides     38
Kepler's Equation     41
Uses and Limitations of Two and Three-Body Solutions     45
Spin-Orbit Coupling     47
Effect of Tidal Friction on Rotation     47
Effect of Tidal Friction on Orbits     49
Resonances and Commensurabilities     50
Perturbations     52
Causes and Effects     52
Deriving the Variation in the Orbital Elements     53
The Core of the Solar System: The Sun     61
The Solar Context     61
The Sun as a Star in the Milky Way Galaxy     62
Observable Properties of the Quiet Sun     65
The Sun's Radiation     66
Luminosity and Surface Brightness     66
Black Body Radiation     70
Flux and Intensity     71
Observed Radiative Properties of the Sun     73
The Photosphere     74
Opacity and Optical Depth     75
Center-to-Limb Variation     76
Granulation and the Convection Zone     79
Other Photospheric Features     80
The Chromosphere     81
The Corona     84
Line Absorption and Emission     85
Helioseismology     87
General Properties of the Terrestrial Planets     95
Overview of Terrestrial Planets     95
Bulk Properties     96
Gravitational Potential Fields     98
Structure of the Earth     101
Seismic Studies     102
The Adams-Williamson Equation     107
Moments of Inertia     111
Models of the Interior     113
The Size of the Earth's Core     114
The Molten Outer Core     114
Non-iron Composition of the Core     115
The Inner Core     117
Formation of the Inner Core     118
Planetary Surfaces     122
Impacts      122
Observing Planetary Surfaces     124
Phase and Visibility     124
Addendum: Properties of Legendre Polynomials and Associated Legendre Functions     126
Planetary Heat Flow and Temperatures     129
Heat Flow     129
Sources of Internal Heat     130
Primordial Heat     130
Ongoing Processes     132
Methods of Energy Transport     133
Radiation     133
Conduction and Convection     133
Nature of the Convection     134
Temperature Gradient     136
Heat Conduction     137
Energy Generation     138
Equilibrium     139
Central Temperature of the Earth     141
Geotherms     141
Solar Heating     142
Rocks and Minerals     149
Rocks     149
Igneous Rocks     149
Sedimentary Rocks     150
Metamorphic Rocks     150
The Geochemical Cycle     150
Minerals     151
Crystal Structure     151
Crystal Density     155
Interstitial Holes     155
Tetrahedral Holes      155
Octahedral Holes     156
The Silicate Tetrahedron     156
Mineral Names     157
Composition of the Earth's Crust     158
Oxygen-to-Silicon Ratio in Chemical Symbols     159
Oxygen-to-Metal Ratio and the Classification of Silicate Minerals     159
2:1 Ratio: Silica (SiO[subscript 2])     159
8:5 Ratio     160
3:2 Ratio     160
4:3 Ratio     161
Mineral Content of Igneous Rocks     162
Classification of Rocks by Mineral Content     164
Phase Transitions     165
Phase Transitions of Pyroxene, MgSiO[subscript 3]     165
Pyroxene     165
Garnet     165
Silicate Ilmenite     166
Perovskite     166
Phase Diagram for Pyroxene     168
Phase transitions of Olivine, Mg[subscript 2]SiO[subscript 4]     168
Densities of Minerals     170
Seismic Discontinuities in the Earth's Mantle     170
Relationship of Phase Diagrams to Seismic Discontinuities     171
The Core-Mantle Boundary and the D" Layer     172
The Moon's Surface, Structure, and Evolution     175
Surface Composition     175
Lunar Orbiting Spacecraft Detections     175
X-Ray Fluorescence     175
Gamma-Ray Spectrometry     176
Landers (1969-1973)     176
Lunar Surface Characteristics     177
Regolith     178
Breccias     178
Impact Melts     179
Terrae (Highlands)     180
Ages of Highland Rocks     180
Dominant Highland Mineral     180
Highland Rock Types     181
Maria     181
Mineral Composition of Mare Basalts     182
Ages of the Maria     182
Orange Glass     182
Overall Lunar Composition     182
Crater Characteristics     182
Seismic Results     184
Upper 25 km     185
25-km Discontinuity     186
25-60 km Depth     187
60-km Discontinuity     187
Lithosphere     188
Upper Mantle     188
Middle Mantle     188
Asthenosphere     188
Lower Mantle     188
Possible Core     188
Geochemical Evolution     188
Formation of the Asthenosphere: Three Scenarios     188
Rapid Accretion of the Moon     189
Longer Accretion Time for the Moon     189
Rapid Accretion of the Moon with Low Fe, S Abundance     189
Depth of Magma Ocean     189
Initial Fractionation (First 100 million yr, 4.6-4.5 Gy)     189
First Stage     190
Initial Crust     190
Second Stage     190
Third Stage     191
Final Solidification     191
Dynamical History of the Moon     192
Surface Science of the Terrestrial Planets     197
Mercury     197
Visibility     197
Mercury's Orbit     199
Mercury's Physical Properties     200
Mercury's Origin     204
Venus     207
Visibility and General Properties     207
Types of Surface     210
Division in Terms of Elevation     210
Division in Terms of Geologic Origin     212
Major Geologic Features of Venus     212
Volcanic Origin     212
Tectonic or Tectonic + Volcanic Origin     212
Comparative Plate Tectonics Earth Vs. Venus     214
Magellan Spacecraft Results     219
Crust     220
Tectonics on Venus     221
Surface Information from the Soviet Landers     223
Terrain at the Lander Sites     223
Chemical Composition     223
Techniques to Measure Composition     223
Composition at the Soviet Lander Sites     224
Interior Heat Budget of Venus     225
Methods of Heat Loss Through Planetary Lithospheres     225
Advection     226
Lithospheric Conduction     226
Plate Tectonics     227
Heat Loss Through the Lithosphere of Venus     227
Advection (Volcanoes, Lava Flows)     227
Plate Tectonics     227
Conduction     227
Mars     228
Visibility and General Properties     228
Global Terrain     229
Volcanoes and Related Features     229
Canyons, Channels and Related Features     231
Other types of terrain     235
Evidence of Climate Change on the Martian Surface     238
The Evidence for Past Life on Mars     243
Index     249

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