ISBN-10:
0387731563
ISBN-13:
9780387731568
Pub. Date:
05/17/2008
Publisher:
Springer New York
Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System / Edition 1

Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System / Edition 1

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Overview

This volume of Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treats the physics and chemistry of these planets in extensive detail. This is followed by the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Abundant use is made of results from space probes.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780387731568
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 05/17/2008
Series: Astronomy and Astrophysics Library Series
Edition description: 2008
Pages: 406
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Eugene Milone has been Professor of Physics, Astronomy, and Astrophysics for 35 years, and has taught at the University of Calgary, San Diego State University, and Ruhr-Universität Bochum. He is a member of the International Astronomical Union, American Astronomical Society, Canadian Astronomical Society, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, New York Academy of Science, Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, International Dark Sky Society, and the International Symposia.

William Wilson has been Professor of Physics, Astronomy, and Astrophysics at the University of Calgary for 30 years. He has spent 15 years teaching courses in Solar System Astrophysics and Stellar Structure and Evolution. His research areas are stellar evolution and stellar properties.

Table of Contents


10 Planetary Atmospheres 1
10.1 Atmospheric Constituents 1
10.2 Atmospheric Structure 4
10.2.1 Pressure Variation with Height 4
10.2.2 Temperature Variation with Height 7
10.3 Circulation in the Atmosphere 11
10.3.1 Centrifugal and Coriolis Forces 11
10.3.2 Physical Effects of the Centrifugal and Coriolis Forces 13
10.3.2.1 The Centrifugal Force 13
10.3.2.2 The Coriolis Force 15
10.3.3 Pressure Gradient Force 16
10.3.4 Friction 17
10.3.5 Geostrophic Balance and Geostrophic Winds 18
10.3.6 Thermal Effects 19
10.3.6.1 Thermal Circulation 19
10.3.6.2 The Thermal Wind 20
10.3.7 Global Circulation 22
10.3.7.1 The Observed Surface Pattern 22
10.3.7.2 The Hadley Cell 24
10.3.7.3 The Ferrel and Polar Cells 25
10.3.7.4 Eddie Motions in the Westerlies 26
10.3.7.5 Air Masses and Fronts 27
10.3.7.6 Jet Streams 27
10.4 Atmospheric Effects on the Heat Budget 30
10.4.1 The Earth 30
10.4.1.1 Troposphere of the Earth 31
10.4.1.2 Stratosphere and Mesosphere 32
10.4.1.3 Thermosphere 33
10.4.1.4 Exosphere 34
10.4.2 Mars 34
10.4.2.1 Troposphere 36
10.4.2.2 Stratomesosphere 36
10.4.2.3 Thermosphere 36
10.4.3 Venus 36
10.4.3.1 Troposphere 37
10.4.3.2 Stratomesosphere 37
10.4.3.3 Thermosphere 37
10.5 Planetary Circulation Effects 38
10.5.1 Circulation and the Coriolis Force 38
10.5.2 Meridional (N-S) Circulation 39
10.5.3 Zonal (E-W) Circulation 39
10.5.3.1 Mars 40
10.5.3.2 Venus 41
10.5.3.2.1 Atmospheric Superrotation 41
10.5.3.2.2 Cyclostrophic Balance 41
10.5.3.2.3 Atmospheric Angular Momentum 42
10.5.3.2.4 Superrotation vs. Other Circulation Patterns 43
10.5.4 OtherConsiderations 44
10.5.4.1 Latent Heat 44
10.5.4.2 Thermal Inertia 44
10.5.4.3 Brunt-Vaisala Frequency 44
10.5.4.4 Diffusion and Mixing in Planetary Atmospheres 45
10.5.4.4.1 Diffusion 45
10.5.4.4.2 Diffusion vs. Mixing 47
10.5.4.4.3 The Homopause 48
10.5.5 Chemical Cycles 48
10.5.5.1 Carbon Cycle (Earth) 48
10.5.5.2 Oxygen Cycle (Earth) 48
10.5.5.3 Nitrogen Cycle (Earth) 49
10.5.5.4 Sulfur Cycle (Earth) 51
10.5.5.5 Sulfur Cycle (Venus) 52
10.5.5.6 Thermospheric Chemistry of Neutrals (Earth) 53
10.5.6 Excess Radiation 54
11 Planetary Ionospheres and Magnetospheres 57
11.1 Earth: Ionospheric Layers 57
11.1.1 The F Layer 57
11.1.1.1 Atoms and Ions in the F Layer 57
11.1.1.2 Production Mechanisms 58
11.1.1.3 Loss Mechanisms 58
11.1.1.4 Ion Concentration vs. Altitude 59
11.1.1.5 Charge Separation 60
11.1.2 The E Layer 60
11.1.2.1 Atoms and Ions in the E Layer 60
11.1.2.2 Production Mechanisms 60
11.1.2.3 Loss Mechanisms 61
11.1.3 The D Layer 61
11.1.3.1 Dominant Ions 61
11.1.3.2 Production Mechanisms 62
11.1.3.3 Loss Mechanisms 63
11.1.4 Reflection of Radio Waves 63
11.2 Atmospheric and Ionospheric Chemistry on Mars and Venus 64
11.2.1 Neutral Atmosphere of Mars 64
11.2.2 Neutral Atmosphere of Venus 65
11.2.3 Ionosphere of Mars 66
11.2.3.1 Dominant Ions 66
11.2.3.2 Production Mechanisms 66
11.2.3.3 Loss Mechanisms 67
11.2.4 Ionosphere of Venus 67
11.2.4.1 Dominant Ions 67
11.2.4.2 Production and Loss Mechanisms 68
11.2.5 Atmospheric Escape Mechanisms 68
11.2.5.1 Jeans Escape 68
11.2.5.2 Suprathermal Atoms and Ions 69
11.3 Solar Wind 69
11.4 Maxwell's Equations and the Plasma Frequency 70
11.4.1 Maxwell's Equations 70
11.4.2 Application to a Polarized Wave 72
11.5 The Earth's Magnetosphere 75
11.5.1 Forces Acting on Charged Particles 79
11.5.1.1 The Lorentz Force 79
11.5.1.2 The Gravitational Force 79
11.5.2 E Uniform and Time-Independent; B = 0 79
11.5.3 B Uniform and Time-Independent; E = 0 80
11.5.4 Guiding Center 82
11.5.5 Diamagnetism 83
11.5.6 E x B Drift and Field-Aligned Currents 84
11.5.7 E x B Drift with Collisions 86
11.5.8 Polarization Drift 87
11.5.9 Gradient and Curvature Drift 88
11.5.9.1 Gradient Drift 88
11.5.9.2 Curvature Drift 89
11.6 Electric Currents in the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere 90
11.6.1 The Ionospheric Dynamo 90
11.6.1.1 The S[subscript q] ("Solar Quiet") Current System 90
11.6.1.2 The L[subscript q] ("Lunar Quiet") Current System 90
11.6.2 Boundary Current 91
11.6.3 Ring Current 92
11.6.3.1 Magnetic Mirrors 92
11.6.3.2 Characteristics of the Motion 93
11.6.3.3 Trapping and Precipitation 95
11.6.3.4 The Ring Current 98
11.6.4 Magnetic Storms 99
11.6.5 Magnetospheric Convection 100
11.6.6 The Magnetotail Current Sheet 101
11.6.7 Magnetospheric Substorms 102
11.6.8 Coupling Between the Magnetosphere and the Ionosphere 103
11.7 Magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, and Mars 107
11.7.1 Mercury 107
11.7.2 Venus 110
11.7.3 Mars 113
12 The Giant Planets 119
12.1 Jupiter 119
12.1.1 Visible Phenomena 121
12.1.2 Jovian Atmospheric Structure 126
12.2 Saturn 128
12.3 Uranus 131
12.4 Neptune 133
12.5 Internal Pressures 136
12.6 Excess Radiation 137
12.7 Ionospheres of the Giant Planets 139
12.8 The Jovian Magnetosphere 140
12.8.1 Inner Magnetosphere of Jupiter 141
12.8.2 Middle Magnetosphere of Jupiter 141
12.8.3 Outer Magnetosphere of Jupiter 142
12.8.4 Interaction with Io 143
12.8.4.1 DAM 145
12.8.4.2 Neutral and Ionized Population of the Jovian Magnetosphere 145
12.8.5 Io as a Source of Particles 146
12.8.5.1 Rate of Supply 146
12.8.5.2 Loss Mechanisms from Io 146
13 Satellite and Ring Systems 151
13.1 Satellites 151
13.1.1 The Moons of Mars 161
13.1.2 The Moons of Jupiter 163
13.1.2.1 Io 164
13.1.2.2 Europa 166
13.1.2.3 Ganymede 168
13.1.2.4 Callisto 170
13.1.3 The Moons of Saturn 173
13.1.3.1 Titan 175
13.1.4 Uranian Moons 183
13.1.5 Neptunian Moons 184
13.1.5.1 Triton 185
13.1.6 Pluto-Charon 186
13.2 Origins of Ring systems 189
13.3 Ring Structures 192
13.3.1 Jovian Rings 192
13.3.2 Saturnian Rings 192
13.3.3 Uranian Rings 198
13.3.4 Neptunian Rings 200
13.3.5 Nature and Possible Origins of the Ring Structures 201
13.4 Orbital Stability of the Moons and the Case of Pluto 203
13.4.1 Satellite Stability 203
13.4.2 Conjectures about Pluto 205
13.5 Origins of the Moons 207
14 Comets and Meteors 213
14.1 Comets in History 213
14.1.1 Early History 213
14.1.2 Tycho Brahe and the Comet of 1577 215
14.1.3 Later Historical Studies 216
14.2 Comet Designations 218
14.3 Cometary Orbits 220
14.4 Typical and Historically Important Comets 225
14.5 Cometary Structure 229
14.6 Cometary Composition 231
14.7 Origins of Comets 237
14.8 Cometary Demise 240
14.9 Meteor Showers 242
14.10 Meteors 243
14.10.1 Basic Meteor Phenomena and Circumstances 243
14.10.2 Meteor Heating and Incandescence 243
14.11 Micrometeorites 249
14.12 Dust Destinies 251
14.12.1 Radiation Pressure 251
15 Meteorites, Asteroids and the Age and Origin of the Solar System 257
15.1 Stones from Heaven 257
15.1.1 Categories and Nomenclature of Meteorites 258
15.1.1.1 Broad Categories 258
15.1.1.2 Another Distinction: Falls and Finds 259
15.1.1.3 Nomenclature 259
15.1.2 Petrographic Categories 259
15.1.3 Meteorite Groupings and Subgroupings 260
15.1.3.1 Undifferentiated Meteorites 260
15.1.3.2 Differentiated Meteorites 262
15.2 Undifferentiated Meteorites: the Chondrites 265
15.2.1 Defining the Chondrites 265
15.2.2 Carbonaceous Chondrites 269
15.2.3 Ordinary Chondrites 270
15.2.4 Enstatites 270
15.2.5 The R Group 271
15.2.6 Former Members, from the IAB Clan 271
15.2.7 Origins of the Chondrites 271
15.3 DSR Meteorites 273
15.3.1 The Igneous Clan 273
15.3.2 Other DSR Meteorites 274
15.4 Iron Meteorites 277
15.5 Ages and Origins of Meteorites 279
15.5.1 Radiogenic Ages 279
15.5.2 Gas Retention Ages 282
15.5.3 Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages 283
15.5.4 Case Study: The Zagami SNC Basaltic Shergottite 283
15.6 Other Sources of Evidence for Meteoritic Origins 284
15.7 Parent Bodies and the Asteroids 286
15.7.1 The Discovery of Ceres 286
15.7.2 Nomenclature 287
15.7.3 Families of Orbits 290
15.7.4 Dimensions and Masses of Asteroids 293
15.7.4.1 Asteroid Dimensions and Albedo 293
15.7.4.2 Asteroid Masses and Densities 297
15.7.5 Asteroids and Meteorites 298
15.8 Implications for the Origin of the Solar System 302
15.9 The Solar Nebula 303
15.10 The Proto-Planetary Disk 305
16 Extra-Solar Planetary Systems 313
16.1 Historical Perspective 313
16.2 Methods to Find "Small"-Mass Companions 338
16.2.1 Radial Velocity Variations of the Visible Component 338
16.2.2 Transit eclipses 342
16.2.3 Astrometric Variations 347
16.2.4 Gravitational Lensing 348
16.2.5 Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy 350
16.2.6 Pulsar Timings 351
16.2.7 Indirect Effects 352
16.3 Definitions of Planets and Brown Dwarfs 353
16.4 Extra-Solar Planets Detected or Strongly Suspected 356
16.4.1 HD 209458b 358
16.4.2 The Multi-Planet System of v Andromedae 360
16.4.3 The Multi-Planet System of 55 Cancri 361
16.4.4 The Multi-Planet System of HD 37124 361
16.4.5 The Multi-Planet System of HD 69830 362
16.4.6 The Multi-Planet System of Gliese J 876 363
16.4.7 The [epsilon] Eridani System 363
16.4.8 The TrES-1 System 364
16.4.9 The XO-1 System 365
16.4.10 The OGLE-TR-10 System 366
16.5 Origins of Brown Dwarfs and Planets 367 Index 387

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