Solaris 8 Training Guide (310-043): Network Administrator Certification / Edition 1 available in Multimedia Set
- Pub. Date:
- Pearson Education
This book helps certified Solaris System Administrators pass the Network Administrator exam. This exam is rapidly increasing in popularity.
This book follows the successful Training Guide format, which delivers superior solutions in the form of lab examples, self-assessment opportunities, summary tables, and several effective learning tools - including ExamGear that enhance the learning experience.
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Chapter 3: Routing in TCP/IP Networks
ObjectivesThis chapter covers the following Sun-specified objectives for the 310-043 exam:
- Describe IP routing. Identify the Solaris 8
daemons that implement routing protocols.
Identify the files used to configure routing.
- TCP/IP networks are usually connected to each
other using devices known as routers. These routers
run special type of protocols, known as routing
protocols. Routing protocols determine the path
from the source host to the destination host before
a data packet can be sent to the destination. There
are multiple types of routing protocols. Types that
are available on the Solaris platform by default are
the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and the
Router Discovery Protocol (RDISC).
Identify the purpose of the files used to configure routing.
- Configuration files are used to configure these
protocols, and you need to know the syntax and
purpose of these files.
Administer the routing table.
- Routing table entries are managed by the route
command. You can display these entries using the
netstat command. You need to know how to
manage a routing table using these commands.
Describe classless interdomain routing.
- Some information about classless interdomain routing (CIDR) is also needed. This type of routing is explained later in this chapter.
Study StrategiesRouting in IP networks is a relatively complicated task. Everybody learns it with experience. To learn this process, the following study strategies are recommended:
- Go through this chapter and complete all the examples.
- Configure a host and configure default routes on it.
- Configure a host as a router using static routes.
- Configure a host as a router using RIP as the routing protocol.
IntroductionInterconnection is what the Internet is all about. Whenever networks are connected together, a mechanism must exist by which data packets can be filtered and routed to other connected networks. As mentioned in Chapter 1, “Introduction to Computer Networks,” routers are the devices used to connect networks together. Sometimes these routers are called gateways. The term gateway was used in a different context in Chapter 1, but from this point on, router and gateway are used interchangeably in this book unless explicitly differentiated.
This chapter starts with an introduction to TCP/IP network planning. There is some description of network addresses and how communication takes place among multiple networks connected by routers. There are two major types of routing: static and dynamic. In static routing, the routing table is defined by network administrators, and it remains there until modified by someone. In dynamic routing, one or more routing protocols are used to manage the routing table. Entries in the routing table are added, deleted, or modified depending on network conditions. There are two major types of routing protocols: distance vector and link state. This chapter covers both types of routing.
RIP and RDISC are used on Solaris systems for dynamic routing. This chapter teaches you how to configure and use both of these on Solaris. You also learn about the files used for the configuration and startup of network routing on Solaris. Then you learn how to enable or disable IP forwarding from one network interface to another in Solaris. Finally, this chapter covers some common routing problems and ways to troubleshoot for these.
After going through this chapter, you should be able to understand basic routing concepts and be able to differentiate between static and dynamic routing. You also should be able to define the static route and you should be able to configure dynamic routing. You also should know how to troubleshoot common routing problems.
Introduction to Routing in TCP/IP NetworksThis chapter evaluates how data packets travel from source to destination. Before transmitting an IP packet, the sending host checks the destination address to determine its mask, which was discussed in detail in Chapter 2, “The TCP/IP Protocol.” If the destination host lies on the local network, the IP packet is directly transferred to the destination using a lower-layer mechanism. The ARP protocol is used to find the MAC address that corresponds to the destination IP address. If the destination address does not lie on the local network, however, the sending host determines to which router it should be forwarded. Most of the time only one router is known as the default gateway. When a router receives an IP packet, it checks the destination IP address to determine which network should it be routed.
Routers use their routing tables for this purpose. If a router cannot find any route to the destination, it drops the data packet generating an ICMP message for the source host. This ICMP message is the Destination Unreachable type packet.
Each IP packet contains the source and destination IP address. Routing decisions are made depending on these addresses. Traditional routing uses only the destination IP address to make a route decision. Policy-based routing also uses the source address to route a packet through a particular path. When a packet reaches its destination, and the destination host needs to send back some information to the source host, it uses the source IP address in the incoming IP packet.
Routers operate at the Network layer level of TCP/IP networks. Figure 3.1 shows a typical data path taken by an IP packet from a source to a destination connected by a router. When the data packet reaches the router, it travels upward to the IP layer, where the decision to forward or drop the data packet is made.
Note that multiple routers may reside along the path from the source to the destination host. The IP packet travels from the Physical layer to the IP layer at each router until it reaches the destination or until it is dropped.
Planning TCP/IP NetworksPlanning makes life much easier when it comes to computer networks. Networks grow, regardless of whether you foresee it. During network growth, there are two main possibilities. If you have planned your network well, you know how to deal with network growth demands. If not, you end up meeting network growth needs as they arise. Obviously, the first situation makes forecasting the needs of the network much easier.
While planning a network, you have to do two types of major planning work: the physical network layout and the IP-level planning. The network topology is what defines a physical network. The logical network involves the network design at the IP level.
Planning for Network DesignWhile designing the physical network and selecting different network technologies, keep in mind the following factors:
- The number of client and server machines on your network
- The types of servers
Table of Contents1. Introduction to Computer Networks.
2. The TCP/IP Protocol.
3. Routing in TCP/IP Networks.
4. Ports and Sockets.
5. Configuring and Managing DHCP.
6. Network Management with SNMP.
7. Configuring and Managing Domain Name Server.
8. Network Time Protocol.
9. Introduction to IPv6.
10. Point-to-Point Protocol.
11. Electronic Mail.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Covered are TCP/IP protocol concepts, client-server ports and sockets, routing, DHCP, SNMP, DNS, and IPv6. The book has lots of examples and output, which are well-explained. At the end of the book are summary and prep tips, a sample exam, and answers.
Although adequate as a basic training guide, too many technical errors, and a lot of incorrect grammar (editing) make this book a poor choice for self-study. For Solaris Network Certification, the book misses emphasizing important topic areas that are covered in the exam. The sections on DHCP, IPv6 and the Ethernet Interface especially, are lacking a good tie to the exam material.
While studying for the certification test, I found this book a great supplement to the Sun training materials. It made clear a lot of what the Sun material didn't.
The book had not enough information for you to pass the examination because some terms and concept could not be found in the book. You should found the additional information from Sun official training materials.