For four decades Sources of Chinese Tradition has served to introduce Western readers to Chinese civilization as it has been seen through basic writings and historical documents of the Chinese themselves. Now in its second edition, revised and extended through Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zeminera China, this classic volume remains unrivaled for its wide selection of source readings on history, society, and thought in the world´s largest nation. Award-winning China scholar Wm. Theodore de Bary -who edited the first edition in 1960 -and his coeditor Richard Lufrano have revised and updated the second volume of Sources to reflect the interactions of ideas, institutions, and historical events from the seventeenth century up to the present day.Beginning with Qing civilization and continuing to contemporary times, volume II brings together key source texts from more than three centuries of Chinese history, with opening essays by noted China authorities providing context for readers not familiar with the period in question. Here are just a few of the topics covered in this second volume of Sources of Chinese Tradition: · Early Sino-Western contacts in the seventeenth century; · Four centuries of Chinese reflections on differences between Eastern and Western civilizations; · Nineteenth- and twentieth-century reform movements, with treatises on women´s rights, modern science, and literary reform; · Controversies over the place of Confucianism in modern Chinese society; · The nationalist revolution -including readings from Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek; · The communist revolution -with central writings by Mao Zedong; · Works from contemporary China -featuring political essays from Deng Xiaoping and dissidents including Wei Jingsheng. With more than two hundred selections in lucid, readable translation by today´s most renowned experts on Chinese language and civilization, Sources of Chinese Tradition will continue to be recognized as the standard for source readings on Chinese civilization, an indispensable learning tool for scholars and students of Asian civilizations.
Table of Contents5. The Maturation of Chinese Civilization and New Challenges to Chinese Tradition
25: The Chinese Tradition in Retrospect
Huang Zongxi's Critique of the Chinese Dynastic System
Waiting for the Dawn: A Plan for the Prince
On the Prince
Establishing a Prime Minister
The Selection of Scholar-Officials, Part 2
Lo Liuliang's Radical Orthodoxy
Commentaries on the Four Books
Principle in the Mind-and-Heart
Principles, Desires, and Rites
The Neo-Confucian Critique of Dynastic Rule
Government: From the Top Down or Ground Up?
Late Confucian Scholarship: Wang Fuzhi; Ian MacMorran
Wang's "Revision" of Orthodox Neo-Confucianism
The Justification of Social and Cultural Divisions
The Preservation of Chinese Political and Cultural Integrity
Gu Yanwu, Beacon of Qing Scholarship
True Learning: Broad Knowledge and a Sense of Shame
Preface to Record of the Search for Antiquities
On the Concentration of Authority at Court
On Bureaucratic Local Administration, ca. 1660; William Rowe
The Han Learning and Text Criticism
Dai Zhen and Zhang Xuecheng; Lynn Strure
Dai Zhen's Text-Critical Moral Philosophy; L. Strure
Letter to Shi Zhongming Concerning Scholarship; L. Strure
Letter in Reply to Advanced Scholar Peng Yunchu; John Ewell
Zhang Xuecheng's Philosophy of History; L. Strure
"Virtue in the Historian"
"Virtue in the Writthe Essentials of the Record of Beliefs Investigated
Han Learning and Western Learning
The Qing Version of Neo-Confucian Orthodoxy
Village Lectures and the Sacred Edict
The Sacred Edict
26: Popular Values and Beliefs; David Johnson
A Procession on the Birthday of the Sanzong God
The Great Sai Ritual of Zhangzi County, Shanxi
The Refining Fire Ritual of Shenze Village, Zhejiang
The Attack on Hell, a Popular Funeral Ritual; John Lagerwey
Mulian Rescues His Mother
Guo Ju Buries His Son
"Woman Huang Explicates the Diamond SÍtra"
"Song of Guo Mountain"
Sacred Edict Lecturing
"The Precious Scroll [Baojuan] on the Lord of the Stove"
"The True Scripture of the Great Emperor"
Selections from The Twenty-four Exemplars of Filial Piety
27: Chinese Responses to Early Christian Contacts; David Mingello
Li Zhizao: Preface to The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven
Xu Guangqi: A Memorial in Defense of the [Western] Teaching
Yang Guangxian's Critique of Christianity
Yang Guangxian: I Cannot Do Otherwise; Budeyi, John D. Young
Zhang Xingyao and the Inculturation of Christianity
An Examination of the Similarities and Differences Between the Lord of Heaven Teaching [Christianity] and the Teaching of the Confucian Scholars
28: Chinese Statecraft and the Opening of China Education
On Women's Education
On the Duties of an Official
On Governance by Local Elites
Statecraft in the Grain Trade and Government-Controlled Brokerages; Pierre-Etienne Will
A Memorial on Grain Prices, the Grain Trade, and Government-Controlled Brokerages
Hong Liangji: On Imperial Malfeasance and China's Population Problem; K. C. Liu
Letter to Prince Cheng Earnestly Discussing the Political Affairs of the Time, 1799
China's Population Problem
The Deterioration of Local Government
The Roots of Rebellion
Gong Zizhen's Reformist Vision; K. C. Liu
On the Lack of Moral Fiber Among Scholar-Officials
Institutional Paralysis and the Need for Reform
The Scholar-Teacher and Service to a Dynasty
Respect for the Guest
Wei Yuan and Confucian Practicality; K. C. Liu
The Learning of Statecraft
Wei Yuan: Preface to Anthology of Qing Statecraft Writings; Huangchao jingshi wenbian
Criteria for Anthology of Qing Statecraft Writings
Learning and the Role of Scholar-Officials
On Governance; Philip Kuhn
The Pursuit of Profit
On Institutional Progress in History
On Merchants and Reform
On Taxation and the Merchants
On Reform of the Tribute-Rice Transport System, 1825
On Reform of the Salt Monopoly
The Western Intrusion Into China
The Lesson of Lin Zexu
Letter to the English Ruler
Letter to Wu Zixu on the Need for Western Guns and Ships
Wei Yuan and the West
Preface to Military History of the Qing of the Taipings
The Book of Heavenly Commandments; Tiantiao shu
A Form to Be Observed in Repenting Sins
The Ten Heavenly Commandments
A Primer in Verse; Youxue shi
Praising Jesus Christ
The Imperial Court
The Way of a King
The Way of the Minister
The Way of the Family
The Taiping Economic Program
The Principles of the Heavenly Nature; Tianqing daolishu
6. Reform and Revolution
30: Moderate Reform and the Self-Strengthening Movement; K. C. Liu
Feng Guifen: On the Manufacture of Foreign Weapons
On the Adoption of Western Learning
Principle Versus Practicality?
The Self-Strengtheners' Rebuttal, 1867
Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang: On Sending Young Men Abroad to Study
Xue Fucheng: On Reform
Zhang Zhidong: Exhortation to Learn
The Three Mainstays or Bonds
Rectifying Political Rights
Following the Proper Order
31: Radical Reform at the End of the Qing
Wang Tao on Reform
Yan Fu on Evolution and Progress; Don Price
Kang Youwei and the Reform Movement
Confucius As a Reformer
How Confucius Founded His Teaching in Order to Reform Institutions
The Six Classics Were All Written by Confucius to Reform Institutions
The Three Ages
The Need for Reforming Institutions
The Grand Commonality
[The Historical Evolution of] Democracy, from Less to More, Presages One World
If We Wish to Attain One World of Complete Peace-and-Equality, We Must Abolish the Family
The Abolition of Boundaries Chu Chengbo: Reforming Men's Minds Comes Before Reforming Institutions
Zhu Yixin: Fourth Letter in Reply to Kang Youwei
Ye Dehui: The Superiority of China and Confucianism; Tan Sitong
The Study of Humanity
Reform Edict of January 29, 1901; Douglas Munay
Renewing the People
The Meaning of "Renewing the People"
On Public Morality
"The Consciousness of Rights"; Peter Zarrow
"The Concept of the Nation"; P. Zarrow
Liang Qichao and the New Press; Joan Judge
Inaugural Statement for the Eastern Times; Shibao, J. Judge
Advocates of Script Reform; Victor Mair
Song Shu: Illiteracy in China
Lu Zhuangzhang's Attempt at Romanization
Shen Xue's Universal Script
Wang Zhao's "Mandarin Letters"
Zhang Binglin's Revolutionary Nationalism; P. Zarrow
Letter Opposing Kang Youwei's Views on Revolution
32: The Nationalist Revolution
Sun Yat-sen and the Nationalist Revolution
"The Six Principles of the People's Report"
1. Overthrow of the Present Evil Government
2. Establishment of a Republic
3. Land Nationalization
The Three People's Principles
The Principle of Democracy
The People's Livelihood
The Three Stages of Revolution
Democracy and Absolutism: The Debate Over Political Tutelage
Luo Longji: What Kind of Political System Do We Want?
Jiang Tingfu: "Revolution and Absolutism"
Hu Shi: "Nationa Reconstruction?
2. Why Did Centuries of Absolute Government Fail to Create a National State in China?
Chiang Kai-shek: Nationalism and Traditionalism
Chiang Kai-shek: Essentials of the New Life Movement
The Object of the New Life Movement
The Content of the New Life Movement
Social Effects [of the Unequal Treaties]
The Decisive Factor in China's Destiny
Jiang Jingguo (Chiang Ching-kuo): The Republic of China in Taiwan
The Evolution of Constitutional Democracy in Taiwan
Implementing "The Three People's Principles"
33: The New Culture Movement; Wing-tsit Chan
The Attack on Confucianism
Chen Duxiu: "The Way of Confucius and Modern Life"
The Literary Revolution
Hu Shi: "A Preliminary Discussion of Literary Reform"
Chen Duxiu: "On Literary Revolution"
Hu Shi: "Constructive Literary Revolution Literature of National Speech"
A National Speech of Literary Quality
The Doubting of Antiquity
Gu Jiegang: Preface to Debates on Ancient History (1926)
A New Philosophy of Life
Chen Duxiu: The True Meaning of Life
Hu Shi: "Pragmatism"
The Pragmatism of James
The Fundamental Concepts of Dewey's Philosophy
The Debate on Science and the Philosophy of Life
Zhang Junmai: "The Philosophy of Life"
Ding Wenjiang: "Metaphysics and Science"
Wu Zhihui: "A New Concept of the Universe and Life Based on a New Belief"
Hu Shi: Sc Over Chinese and Western Cultures
Liang Qichao: "Travel Impressions from Europe"
Liang Shuming: Chinese Civilization vis-...-vis Eastern and Western Philosophies
Reconstructing the Community
Hu Shi: Our Attitude Toward Modern Western Civilization
Sa Menwu, He Bingsong, and Others: Declaration for Cultural Construction on a Chinese Basis
Hu Shi: Criticism of the "Declaration for Cultural Construction on a Chinese Basis"
Radical Critiques of Traditional Society; Peter Zarrow
He Zhen: "What Women Should Know About Communism"
Han Yi: "Destroying the Family"
34: The Communist Revolution
The Seedbed of the Communist Revolution: The Peasantry and the Anarcho-Communist Movement; Peter Zarrow
Liu Shipei: "Anarchist Revolution and Peasant Revolution"
Li Dazhao: The Victory of Bolshevism
Mao's Revolutionary Doctrine
"Report on an Investigation of the Hunan Peasant Movement"
"The Question of Land Redistribution"
The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party
The Mass Line
On New Democracy
The Dictatorship of the People's Democracy
35: Chinese Communist Praxis
Liu Shaoqi: How to Be a Good Communist
Mao Zedong: The Rectification Campaign
Report of the Propaganda Bureau of the Central Committee on the Zhengfeng Reform Movement, April 1942
Wang Shiwei: "Wild Lily"
Liu Shaoqi: On Inner-Party Struggle
Mao Zedong: Combat Liberalism
Ding Ling: "Thoughts on March 8, 1942"
36: The Mao Regime
Establishment of the People's Republic
Mao Zedong: "Leaning to One Side"
Mao Zedong: "Stalin Is Our Commander"
Guo Moruo: Ode to Stalin"Long Live Stalin" on his seventieth birthday 1949; Chao-ying Fang
Ji Yun: "How China Proceeds with the Task of Industrialization" (1953)
Li Fuqun: "Report on the First Five-Year Plan for Development of the National Economy of the People's Republic of China in 19531957, July 5 and 6, 1955"
Changes in Mid-Course
Mao Zedong: "The Question of Agricultural Cooperation," July 31, 1955
Mao Zedong: "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People"
Liu Binyan: A Higher Kind of Loyalty
Intellectual Opinions from the Hundred Flowers Period
Mao Zedong: Remarks at the Beidaihe Conference, August 1958
Peng Dehuai: "Letter of Opinion" to Mao Zedong on the Great Leap Forward, July 1959
Wu Han: "Hai Rui Scolds the Emperor," June 19, 1959
The Cultural Revolution
The Sixteen Points: Guidelines for the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong
"What Have Song Shuo, Lu Ping, and Peng Peiyun Done in the Cultural Revolution?"
Red Guard Memoirs
Wang Xizhe, Li Zhengtian, Chen Yiyang, Guo Hongzhi: "The Li Yi Zhe Poster," November 1974
7. The Return of Stability and Tradition
37. Deng's "Modernization" and Its Critics; (R. Lufrano)
The Turn Enlai: "Report on the Work of the Government," delivered on January 13, 1975, at the First Session of the Fourth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
CommuniquÇ of the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, December 22, 1978
Yu Qiuli: "The Relationship Between Politics and Economics"
"Uphold the Four Basic Principles," Speech by Deng Xiaoping, March 30, 1979
"Building Socialist Spiritual Civilization," letter from Li Chang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, to a member of the Party Central Committee, December 1980
Office of the CCP Dehong Dai Nationality and Qingbo Autonomous Zhou Committee: "Several Questions in Strengthening and Perfecting the Job Responsibility Systems or Agricultural Production," November 7, 1980
Early Critiques of the Deng Regime
Publication Statement, Beijing Spring Magazine, January 1979
Wei Jingsheng: The Fifth ModernizationDemocracy, 1978; (Kristina Torgeson)
Democracy or New Dictatorship, Explorations, March 1979
Wall Poster from the April Fifth Forum
Hu Ping: "On Freedom of Speech," written for his successful 1980 campaign to become Beijing University's delegate to the Haidian District People's Assembly
Wang Ruoshui: "Discussing the Question of Alienation"
Wang Ruoshui: "In Defense of Humanism"
Assessing the New Policies
Deng Xiaoping: "Build Socialism with Chinese Characteristics"
Chen Yun: Speech given at the Chinese Communist National Representative Conference, September 23, Demands for Change and Democracy
Fang Lizhi: Democracy, Reform, and Modernization
Fang Lizhi: "Reform and Intellectuals," talk given in 1986
Fang Lizhi: "The Social Responsibility of Today's Intellectuals," speech given at Beijing University, November 4, 1985
Li Xiaojiang: "Awakening of Women's Consciousness"
The New Authoritarianism
Wu Jiaxiang: "An Outline for Studying the New Authoritarianism," May 1989
Rong Jian: "Does China Need an Authoritarian Political System in the Course of Modernization?" May 1989
Yan Jiaqi: "How China Can Become Prosperous"
38. Twentieth-Century Christianity in China; Julia Ching
Religion and the State; Ruth Hayhoe
Religion and Culture; R. Hayhoe
"Present-Day Religious Thought and Life in China"
Leadership and Citizenship Training
"The Present-Day Tragedy of Christianity"
"The Reformation of Christianity"
The Christian Manifesto
We, Because of Faith
Wu Jingxiong: Christianity and Chinese Tradition
"Beyond East and West"
"The Lotus and the Mud"
39: Reopening the Debate on Chinese Tradition
The New Confucians
Xiong Shili; Tu Weiming
Manifesto for a Reappraisal of Sinology and the Reconstruction of Chinese Culture
Mou Zongsan's Confucian Philosophy; John Berthirong
The Sensitivity and Steadfastness of Humaneness (ren)
Feng Youlan: "Chinan Ancient Nation with a New Mission"
The Cont Chinaman"
Sun Longji: "The Deep Structure of Chinese Culture"
Su Xiaokang and Wang Luxiang: "River Elegy," a television documentary
Li Zehou: "A Reevaluation of Confucianism"; Woeilien Chong
Gu Mu: Confucianism as the Essence of Chinese Tradition