Soybean is one of the world’s leading sources of seed oil and seed protein and is grown extensively, particularly in the Americas and Asia. Indeed, soybean is the lowest-cost producer of vegetable oil, since the oil is a coproduct of its protein-rich meal. Major advances have recently been made in our understanding of soybean genetics and of the application of new technologies to soybean improvement. Thus it is now possible, using molecular methods, to alter the protein and oil composition of soybean, as well as produce other foreign proteins in the plant. Further progress should permit the improvement of nitrogen fixation and other desirable traits. This book focuses on recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean and provides a broad review of the subject, from genome diversity to transformation and integration of desired genes using current technologies. It is aimed at workers in legume agronomy, plant genetics, breeding and biotechnology.