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Speaker's Handbook

Speaker's Handbook

5.0 2
by Jo Sprague, Douglas Stuart

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ISBN-10: 0155831755

ISBN-13: 9780155831759

Pub. Date: 02/28/1984

Publisher: Harcourt College Publishers

Whether you're looking for a reference tool that will take your speeches to the next level or a textbook that will help you make the most of your public speaking course, The Speaker's Handbook is the right choice for you. Its clear, up-to-date, and easily managed blocks of indispensable information are presented within eight color-coded parts, all accessible from the


Whether you're looking for a reference tool that will take your speeches to the next level or a textbook that will help you make the most of your public speaking course, The Speaker's Handbook is the right choice for you. Its clear, up-to-date, and easily managed blocks of indispensable information are presented within eight color-coded parts, all accessible from the Quick Start guide printed on the inside front cover. Now with a full-color design, durable comb binding, and numerous sample speeches, this text is the best resource for public speakers both inside and outside the classroom.

This edition is also enhanced by an assortment of outstanding online resources, including: Speech Builder Express, an online coach for developing, organizing, and outlining speeches of all types, ThomsonNOW[Trademark], an online study system that creates study plans personalized just for you, Interactive Video Activities, featuring full-length videos and clips of speeches by students and public figures with advanced functionality, A Premium Companion Website with a rich assortment of chapter-by-chapter resources, And much more!

Product Details

Harcourt College Publishers
Publication date:
Product dimensions:
6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xxi
Foundation     1
Introduction: The Value of Public Speaking Skills     3
Understanding Speaking     6
Understand What It Means to Be a Public Speaker     6
Recognize the Theoretical Foundations of Effective Public Speaking     7
Oral Cultures     7
Classical Rhetoric     10
Communication Studies     11
Dialogic Perspectives     12
Approach Public Speaking as Meaning-Centered     13
Communication Is More Than Information Transmission and Reception     14
Communication Is the Joint Creation of Meaning     14
Draw on Three Familiar Communicative Resources     15
Draw on Your Conversation Skills     16
Draw on Your Writing Skills     16
Draw on Your Performance Skills     17
Combine and Balance These Communicative Resources     18
Avoid Relying Too Much on Any One of These Resources     19
Understand the Role of Consciousness in Skill Learning     20
Beware of Common Misconceptions     23
Misconception 1: Good Speakers Are Born, Not Made     23
Misconception 2: Good Speaking Should Be Easy Right Away     24
Misconception 3: Speaking Will AlwaysBe as Difficult as It Is When You Are First Learning It     24
Misconception 4: There Are Simple Formulas for Effective Speaking     24
Follow Five Steps of Public Speaking     25
Listening     28
Recognize the Relationship between Effective Speaking and Listening     28
Prepare to Listen     29
Banish Distractions and Get Physically Set to Listen     29
Stop Talking     29
Decide on Your Purpose as a Listener     29
Be Both Curious and Critical     30
Show Respect for the Speaker     30
Be Open to the Speaker's Point of View     30
Consciously Follow the Structure of the Speech     31
Critically Assess the Speaker's Claims     31
At the Designated Time, Ask Questions     31
Provide Constructive Feedback     31
Start with the Positive     32
Make Important Comments First     32
Be Specific     32
Give Suggestions, Not Orders     33
Be Realistic about the Amount and Kind of Feedback a Speaker Can Receive     33
Use the 90/10 Principle     33
Listen to Optimize Your Learning     34
Paraphrase     34
Ask Follow-up Questions for Clarification     35
Take Notes     35
Listen Holistically When Conducting Audience Analysis     35
Listen at Multiple Levels     35
Listen between the Lines     35
Listen to the Silences     36
Avoid Common Listening Pitfalls     36
Daydreaming, Doodling, and Disengaging     36
Allowing Yourself to Be Distracted by Superficial Qualities of the Speaker     36
Uncritically Accepting a Message     36
Prematurely or Totally Rejecting a Message     37
Planning Your Response or Rebuttal to a Speech Instead of Listening to It     37
Failing to Monitor Your Nonverbal Behaviors as a Listener     37
Speaking Ethics     38
Be Aware of Ethical Implications of Your Choices     39
Recognize That Every Action Has an Ethical Dimension     39
Recognize That Ethical Decisions Are Rarely Clear-cut     39
Recognize That Ethical Decisions Vary with Context     40
Respect the Integrity of Your Own Core Values     40
Respect the Integrity of Your Audience     41
Respect the Integrity of Ideas     41
Don't Plagiarize     41
Don't Lie     42
Don't Oversimplify      43
Weigh the Complex Factors and Competing Goals in Ethical Decisions     44
Balance the Value of Using Language in a Lively and Forceful Manner against the Risk of Causing Pain and Offense     44
Balance the Importance of Appealing to Your Audience at an Emotional Level against the Risk of Abusing Emotional Appeals     44
Balance the Right to Use Compelling Persuasive Appeals against the Obligation to Avoid Simplistic Persuasive Techniques     45
Overcoming Fear of Speaking     49
Put Your Fear of Speaking into Perspective     49
Accept Some Fear as Normal     49
Analyze Your Fear as Specifically as Possible     50
Reconceptualize the Role of the Audience     51
"Talking with" Your Listeners     52
Build Your Confidence through Thorough Preparation and Practice     52
Manage the Physical Effects of Fear     53
Tension Release     53
Relaxation Techniques     54
Use Positive Self-Suggestion to Combat Your Anxiety     54
Visualize Success     54
Replace Negative Internal Statements with Positive Ones     55
Seek Assistance beyond This Book     56
Preparation     59
Introduction: The First Stage of the Public Speaking Process     61
Planning      62
Allow Time for the Four Phases of Creativity     62
Make a Realistic Timetable     63
List the Tasks and Estimate the Time Needed     64
Determine the Order in which Tasks Must Be Completed     64
Set Intermediate Deadlines for Major Stages     65
Make Your Speech Preparation an Oral and Collaborative Process     65
Focus on Different Resources at Different Phases of Preparation and Presentation     67
Avoid Common Planning Pitfalls     68
Topic Selection and Analysis     70
Select a Speech Topic     70
Draw From Your Own Experience, Expertise, and Interests     71
Select a Topic Appropriate to the Audience and Occasion     72
Select a Topic That Is Both Timely and Timeless     73
Narrow Your Topic     75
Determine the Number of Ideas That the Time Will Allow     75
Select a Few Main Ideas to Cover     76
Clarify the Purpose of Your Speech     77
Identify the General Purpose     77
Determine the Specific Purpose     78
Specify the Desired Outcomes     79
Develop a Clear Thesis Statement     82
Formulate a Single Declarative Sentence     82
Break Your Thesis Statement into a List of Questions     83
Select a Speech Title If Necessary     85
Audience Analysis     89
Seek Information through Many Channels     90
Use Direct Observation     90
Do Systematic Data Collection     90
Conduct Selected Interviews and/or Focus Groups     90
Talk with the Contact Person     91
Use Intelligent Inference and Empathy     91
Analyze Audience Demographics     91
Age or Generation     92
Sex and Gender     93
Race and Ethnicity     94
Try to Understand What Is Meaningful to Your Audience     97
Determine the Audience's Attitudes toward Your Topic     98
Gather Details about the Specific Speech Situation     99
Research     102
Have a Research Strategy     102
Fit Your Research to the Time Allotted     103
Progress from the General to the Specific     103
Develop a List of Key Terms for Your Topic     104
Use Your Audience Analysis Questions to Direct Your Research     105
Use the Library     105
Talk to a Librarian     105
Locate Books and Articles on Your Topic     106
Use the Internet     108
Search Efficiently     110
Carefully Evaluate Internet Sources     113
Talk to People     115
Locate People with Information     115
Conduct Interviews     117
Keep a Complete Record of Your Sources, and Know How to Cite Them     118
Citing Sources for a List of References     119
Citing Sources in Your Speech     119
Capture Information and Ideas in Discrete Units     124
Notecards from Print and Electronic Sources     124
Notecards from Interviews and Surveys     126
Grouping Your Cards     126
Organization     127
Introduction: Bringing Order to Your Ideas     129
Transforming Ideas Into Speech Points     132
Assemble All Promising Ideas and Information     132
Use a Variety of Tools to Identify Potential Points     133
Create a Working Outline     133
Use Concept Mapping     134
Manipulate Movable Notes     134
Choose Main Points That Correspond to Your Thesis     136
Select Main Points That Are Mutually Exclusive     137
Include from Two to Five Main Points     140
Express Points to Reflect Relationships      140
Subordinate Points Should Fit within a Larger Idea     141
Coordinate Points Should Be of Equal Importance     142
Each Subpoint Should Directly Relate to the Point It Supports     142
Organizing Points     143
Arrange Your Main Points     143
Using Chronological Patterns     144
Using Spatial Patterns     144
Using Cause-Effect Patterns     145
Using the Problem-Solution Pattern     146
Using Topical Patterns     146
Group Subpoints According to a Pattern     148
Outlining     152
Use the Conventional Outline Format     153
Follow a Consistent Set of Symbols     153
Show Logical Relationships through Indentation     154
Develop Each Level of Subordination with Two or More Parts     155
Be Sure Each Symbol Designates Only One Point and That Every Point Has a Symbol     155
Use a Full-Sentence Outline     156
Phrase Main Points to Forecast Subpoints     161
Phrase Points in Concise and Parallel Language     162
Connectives     165
Select Connectives That Reflect the Logical Relationships     166
Make Use of Internal Previews and Summaries      168
Introductions     170
Project Confidence before Starting     170
Engage the Audience's Attention Immediately     171
Provide a Psychological Orientation     172
Establish a Good Relationship with Your Audience     173
Motivate Your Audience toward Your Topic     176
Provide a Logical Orientation     177
Establish a Context for Your Speech     178
Orient the Audience to Your Approach to the Topic     180
Make Your Introduction as Compact as Possible     181
Conclusions     184
Provide Logical Closure     184
Summarize the Main Ideas     184
Reestablish Your Topic's Connection to a Larger Context     185
Provide Psychological Closure     186
Remind the Audience How the Topic Affects Their Lives     186
Make an Appeal     187
End Your Speech with a Clincher     188
Development     191
Introduction: Shaping Your Speech     194
Supporting Material     196
Define Unfamiliar Words and Concepts     197
Logical Definition     197
Etymological and Historical Definitions     198
Operational Definition      198
Definition by Negation or Opposition     199
Definition by Authority     199
Definition by Example     200
Make Frequent Use of Examples     200
Use Factual Examples     201
Use Hypothetical Examples     202
Use the Appropriate Amount of Detail     203
Use Statistical Evidence     204
Test the Accuracy of Statistical Evidence     205
Avoid Misleading Statistics     206
Make Your Statistics Clear and Meaningful     208
Draw on Testimony from Authorities     209
Evaluate the Credibility of the Authorities You Cite     210
Do Not Distort Quotations     211
Weave in Supporting Materials Smoothly, and Cite Your Sources     212
Cite the Sources of Your Supporting Materials     213
Use a Variety of Lead-ins     213
Reasoning     215
Identify Where Reasoning Is Needed to Link Points     216
Evidence Can Lead to More Than One Claim     216
People Look for Familiar Patterns     217
Inductive Reasoning     218
Base Inferences on Sufficient and Representative Cases     219
Recognize the Degree of Probability of Your Claim     220
Demonstrate Your Cost-Reward Analysis     221
Deductive Reasoning     222
In a Formal Deductive Syllogism, the Major Premise Sets Up an Absolute Relationship     224
Probable Premises Can Lead Only to Probable Conclusions     225
Lay Out All the Premises of a Deductive Argument     226
Causal Reasoning     228
Test the Validity of Your Causal Relationships     228
Do Not Oversimplify Causal Relationships     230
Explain Your Causal Claims Fully and Fairly     232
Reasoning by Analogy     233
Be Sure That the Two Cases Are Similar     234
Do Not Confuse a Literal Analogy with a Figurative Analogy     235
Avoid Common Reasoning Fallacies     235
Attacking the Person (ad hominem)     236
Setting Up a Straw Figure     236
Extending an Argument to Absurd Lengths (reductio ad absurdum)     236
The Slippery Slope     237
Circular Reasoning     237
The Semantic Fallacy     238
False Dichotomy     238
Faulty Reversal of an If-Then Statement     239
Hasty Generalization     239
Confusing Sequence with Cause     240
Show How Your Reasoning Links Your Evidence to Your Claim      241
Organize Points to Show the Logical Relationships     241
Select Language That Shows the Logical Relationships     243
Language and Style     248
Understand How Oral and Written Styles Differ     249
Strive for Clear Language     250
Be Precise     251
Use Specific and Concrete Language     252
Be Economical in Your Language     253
Use Appropriate Language     254
Adapt Your Language to the Formality of the Occasion     255
Use Jargon or Slang Carefully     255
Avoid Substandard Usage     256
Use Language That Is Respectful and Inclusive     256
Use Vivid, Varied Language     258
Use Imagery     258
Use Stylistic Devices     259
Use Fresh Language     262
Vary the Rhythm of Your Sentences     262
Use the Language Style of Your Listeners     262
Attention and Interest     266
Use Techniques That Enliven Your Speech     267
Be Specific and Use Real-life Examples     268
Keep Your Audience Involved     269
Use Variety and Movement to Energize Your Speech     270
Use Humor When It Is Appropriate      271
Convert Attention to Interest     272
Link Your Topic to Your Listeners' Self-Interest     273
Incorporate Storytelling Techniques     273
Avoid Common Attention Pitfalls     274
Avoid Questionable Attention "Grabbers"     274
Don't Let a Story or Joke Take Over Your Speech     274
Don't Tell Jokes Unless You Can Tell Them Well     275
Don't Let Audience Participation Cause You to Lose Control     275
Credibility     276
Assess Your Speaking Image     277
Build Your Credibility before Your Speech     278
Provide the Contact Person with Information about Your Qualifications     278
Help the Person Introducing You Set a Favorable Tone     278
Manage Your Image during All Contact with the Group before the Speech     278
Build Your Credibility through Your Speech Content     279
Present your Credentials     279
Demonstrate a Thorough Understanding of Your Topic     280
Be Sure Your Material Is Clearly Organized     280
Present a Balanced and Objective Analysis     280
Express Your Concern for the Audience     281
Increase Your Credibility with Your Speech Delivery     281
Motivational Appeals      282
Consider the Emotional Impact You Want to Create or Avoid     282
Relate Your Speech to the Needs of Your Listeners     283
Relate Your Speech to the Values of Your Listeners     285
Incorporate Appeals to General Values     287
Identify and Relate to the Core Values of Your Audience     287
Link the Issues of Your Speech and the Values of the Audience     289
Appeal to Your Listeners' Sense of Community     291
Avoid Excessive and Inappropriate Motivational Appeals     291
Informative Strategies     292
Help Your Listeners Grasp Your Information     292
Avoid Information Overload     293
Give Listeners a Framework for Organizing the Information     293
Move from the Simple to the Complex     293
Move from the Familiar to the Unfamiliar     293
Use Common Techniques of Clear Explanation     294
Use Organizers     294
Use Emphasis Cues     295
Use Examples Liberally     295
Use Analogies     296
Use Multiple Channels and Modes     296
Use Repetition and Redundancy     297
Persuasive Strategies     298
Clarify Your Persuasive Goals     299
Analyze Your Persuasive Goals     300
Identify Whether You Need a Proposition of Fact, of Value, or of Policy     300
Use Stock Issues to Help You Analyze Your Topic     302
Adjust Your Content Based on Your Audience's Attitudes     304
Favorable Audience     304
Neutral Audience     307
Unfavorable Audience     309
Organize Your Points for Optimal Persuasive Impact     312
Use the Motivated Sequence to Engage Your Audience     312
Compare the Advantages of Two Proposals as a Way of Organizing Your Speech     314
Place Your Strongest Points First or Last     314
Consider Dealing with Opposing Arguments     315
Address the Opposing Arguments Directly, Using Refutation Techniques     315
Answer Counterarguments after Developing Your Own Position     317
Presentation     319
Introduction: The Natural Theory of Delivery     322
Modes of Delivery     326
Use Four Steps to Prepare an Extemporaneous Speech     326
Remember Four Steps When Speaking Impromptu     328
Keep your Composure     329
Select a Theme     329
Select an Organizational Framework     329
Whenever Possible, Plan Your First and Last Sentences     330
Speak from a Manuscript When Precise Wording and Timing Are Necessary     330
Prepare an Easily Readable Manuscript     331
Become Familiar with Your Manuscript     332
Memorize Certain Manuscript Speeches     333
Memorize the Structure First     333
Read The Speech Aloud Several Times, and Then Learn It Paragraph by Paragraph     333
As You Practice, Visualize Giving the Speech     334
Do Not Go into a Trance When Delivering the Speech     334
If You Go Blank, Recall the Structure of the Speech     334
Practice Sessions     335
Get Effective Feedback     335
Form a Feedback Support Group     335
Get Guidelines for Feedback     335
Allow Time for Three Stages of Practice     336
Use Early Sessions to Flesh Out Your Outline     336
Use Middle Sessions to Get Feedback     338
Use Final Sessions for Refinements     340
Prepare Speech or Speaker's Notes     340
Include Keywords, Key Phrases, and Material That Is to Be Cited Directly     340
Prepare Speech Notes in a Format That Aids Delivery     341
Fit Your Speech into the Time Limit     343
Do a Final Run-Through and Get Into the Proper Frame of Mind     345
Avoid Common Practice Pitfalls     346
"Mental" Rather Than Oral Practice     346
Too Many Critics     346
Overpreparation     346
Self-consciousness Rather Than Audience Consciousness     346
Vocal Delivery     347
Speak to Be Heard and Understood     347
Speak Loudly Enough to Be Heard by the Entire Audience     348
Speak at a Rate Your Audience Can Follow     348
Enunciate Words Distinctly and Naturally     349
Consider Making Some Adjustments If You Have an Accent     349
Use Vocal Variety     350
Vary Your Pitch     351
Vary Your Rate of Speaking     351
Vary Your Volume     352
Use Standard, Acceptable Pronunciation     352
Identify Words That You Habitually Mispronounce     353
Check the Preferred Pronunciation of Unfamiliar Words     353
Eliminate Distracting Vocal Characteristics     355
Identify Problems of Voice Quality     356
Identify Problems of Articulation     356
Identify Vocalized Pauses and Other Irrelevant Sounds and Phrases     357
Identify Repetitious Patterns of Inflection     358
Use a Systematic Self-improvement Program or Get Professional Help     358
Physical Delivery     361
Be Conscious of Your Appearance     361
Eliminate Distracting Mannerisms     362
Stand or Sit with a Relaxed but Alert Posture     362
Make Only Purposeful and Relevant Movements     363
Make Natural Gestures     363
Maintain Eye Contact     365
Use Facial Expression to Reflect Tone     366
Presentation Aids     367
Plan How to Use Presentation Aids     368
Decide If a Presentation Aid Is Appropriate     368
Determine the Form and Technology That Best Suit Your Purpose     369
Decide on the Best Way to Represent an Object or Concept Visually     370
Prepare Your Aids to Be Clear and Manageable     369
Make Sure the Entire Audience Will Be Able to See and Hear Your Aids     373
Keep Visual Aids Simple and Clear     375
Design Visual Aids for Maximum Audience Impact     376
Blend Your Aids Smoothly into the Speech     378
Practice with Your Aids     378
Have Your Aid Ready to Go     378
Maintain Eye Contact     378
Keep Talking while Using Visual Aids     378
Do Not Let Your Aids Become a Distraction     379
Use Presentation Software Wisely     380
Keep Your Text Slides Simple     380
Maintain Consistency     380
Use Clip Art Sparingly     380
Do Not Become Secondary to Your Slides     381
Adapting to the Speech Situation     384
Prepare for and Adapt to Audience Reactions     384
Take Steps to Prevent Distractions     385
Check the Room and Equipment for Possible Sources of Distraction     385
Ignore Fleeting or Low-Level Distractions during your Speech     385
Incorporate Distractions into Your Speech     387
Make Necessary Interruptions as Short as Possible and Then Draw Your Listeners Back In     387
Respond to Hecklers Calmly and Firmly     388
The Verbal Heckler     388
The Nonverbal Heckler     389
Answering Questions     391
Come Prepared for a Question-and-Answer Period     391
Invite and Answer Audience Questions in a Straightforward Manner     392
Manage Self-Indulgent Questioners     393
The Person Who Wants to Give a Speech     393
The Person Who Wants to Have an Extended Dialogue     394
The Person Who Wants to Pick a Fight      394
Contexts     395
Introduction: Adapting to Speaking Contexts     397
Analyzing Speech Contexts     398
Take Time to Think about the Basics     398
Identify Formats Associated with the Speaking Context     399
Analyze the Dimensions of the Speaking Situation     400
Educational Context     403
Oral Assignments to Develop Speaking Skill     403
Oral Assignments to Practice for Professional Contexts     404
Oral Assignments to Master Subject Matter     404
Guidelines for Educational Presentations     405
Workplace Context     406
Approach Training Sessions as a Kind of Informative Speaking     407
Conduct a Needs Analysis to Develop Training Objectives     407
Design a Varied and Engaging Program     408
Develop a Tightly Organized Plan with a Realistic Agenda     408
Plan an Introduction That Establishes a Contract between the Trainer and the Trainees     409
Save Time for a Two-Part Conclusion     409
Make Project Proposals Concrete and Persuasive     409
Become Thoroughly Familiar with the Evaluation Criteria     410
Use the Introduction to State Your Proposal Clearly     410
Use the Body of the Presentation for a Detailed Description of Your Proposal     410
End on a Positive Note     411
Follow Common Guidelines for Project Status Reports     411
Begin with an Overall Statement of the Project's Status     411
Give a Detailed Description of the Progress in the Body of the Report     411
End by Assessing the Project Status     412
Follow Common Guidelines for Employment and Other Interviews     412
Analyze Your Audience     412
Prepare an Opening Statement     413
Answer Questions Directly and Concisely     413
Prepare a Repertoire of Problem-Solution-Result (PSR) Statements     413
Maintain Effective Delivery Skills throughout An Interview     415
Follow Common Guidelines for Team Presentations     416
As a Group, Establish an Overall Preparation Plan     416
Create a Content Outline That Includes Speakers' Responsibilities     416
Agree on Unifying Elements     418
Practice the Presentation     418
Debrief after Each Presentation     419
Social and Ceremonial Context     420
Cover the Expected Bases     420
Identify the Needs of the People Involved     421
Follow Common Guidelines for Various Contexts      421
Civic and Political Context     424
Tailor Your Individual Presentation to a Group Format     425
Confirm the Format and Clarify Expectations     425
Prepare as Carefully as for a Speech     425
Be Aware of Your Nonverbal Communication     426
Follow Common Guidelines for a Public Debate     426
Consider the Opposing Point of View     426
Organize Your Ideas, Arguments, and Evidence     427
Prepare Your Opening Speech Carefully     427
Address Major Issues during the Refutation Phase     427
Save Time for a Summary of the Argument     427
Maintain a Calm and Professional Demeanor     427
Leadership Across Contexts     428
Prepare before You Chair a Program or Meeting     428
Plan the Agenda Carefully     428
Be Sure All Participants Understand the Agenda and Their Roles     431
Be Prepared for All Contingencies     431
Establish a Positive and Helpful Environment     432
Model Appropriate Communication     433
Set Communication Ground Rules     432
Deal Promptly and Diplomatically with Violations of Rules and Norms     433
Sample Speeches     435
Introduction: Because There's No Substitute for a Concrete Example     437
Speeches by Student Speakers     443
Guide Dogs for the Blind, Informative Speech   Peter Ballard     443
Eye Chip, Informative Speech   Vanessa Harikul     445
The Assault on Your Ears, Outline for an Informative Speech with Presentation Aids   Patrick Wong     449
The Assault on Your Ears, Informative Speech with Presentation Aids   Patrick Wong     452
Ethanol Production Plant, PowerPoint Slides for a Technical Presentation   Khe Dinh     455
Overconsumption of Sugar, Persuasive Speech   Hans Erian     462
Rain Forests Are in Need of Defense, Outline for a Persuasive Speech with Presentation Aids   Karen McNeil     465
Rain Forests Are in Need of Defense, Persuasive Speech with Presentation Aids   Karen McNeil     471
What You Can Do for the Homeless, Persuasive Speech   Michelle Zajac     477
Speeches by Public Figures     482
Women's Rights Are Human Rights   Hillary Rodham Clinton     482
Acceptance of the ESPY Award   Cathy Freeman     488
All Hands   Norman Mineta     489
Address to the Democratic National Convention, 2004   Barack Obama      493
The Centrality of Oral Communication in Secondary Education   John Poulakos     499
Additional Resources     507
Introduction: Just in Case     509
Guide to Common Pronunciation and Usage Errors     511
Problems in Pronunciation     511
Word-Choice Errors     512
Some Grammar and Usage Problems     514
Glossary of Key Terms     517
Notes     529
Index     531
List of Figures and Tables     548

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