This volume is an essential handbook for anyone interested in performing the most accurate spectrophotometric or other optical property of materials measurements. The chapter authors were chosen from the leading experts in their respective fields and provide their wisdom and experience in measurements of reflectance, transmittance, absorptance, emittance, diffuse scattering, color, and fluorescence. The book provides the reader with the theoretical underpinning to the methods, the practical issues encountered in real measurements, and numerous examples of important applications.
- Written by the leading international experts from industry, government, and academia
- Written as a handbook, with in depth discussion of the topics
- Focus on making the most accurate and reproducible measurements
- Many practical applications and examples
About the Author
Joanne C. Zwinkels is a Principal Research Officer at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). She received her PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Alberta (1983) with specialization in the infrared optical properties of solids. In 1984, she joined the NRC Division of Physics to work in the field of spectrophotometry and from 1991 to 2009 was the Group Leader for Photometry and Radiometry. Her research activities involve the development of new reference instrumentation, standards and procedures for high-accuracy spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry and color and appearance measurements. Her accomplishments include the development of a reference spectrophotometer for regular transmittance measurements, a reference spectrofluorimeter for high-accuracy surface fluorescence measurements, and is currently extending fluorescence measurement capabilities to other geometries and applications by the development of a reference goniospectrofluorimeter. Joanne is actively involved in international standardization activities and currently serves as Chair of the Strategic Planning Working Group of the Consultative Committee of Photometry and Radiometry, International Convenor of ISO TC6/WG3 (Paper, board and pulps: optical properties), and Associate Director of CIE Division 2 (Physical Measurement of Light and Radiation). Joanne is a recipient of the NRC Outstanding Achievement Award for Leadership (2006) and of the 2010 Macbeth Award given out biannually by the Inter-Society Color Council (ISCC) for outstanding contributions in color science and technology.
Benjamin K. Tsai graduated from Brigham Young University with a BSME degree in 1987. Next, he obtained a MSME degree in 1990 at Purdue University by completing his thesis on “Dual-wavelength Radiation Thermometry: Emissivity Compensation Algorithms. In 1993 he finished a PhD degree at Purdue University with a dissertation entitled, “Macroscopic Spread Function Analysis for Subsurface Scattering in Semitransparent Materials. Since that time, he has worked in the Sensor Science Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. His interests and projects have included development of a new irradiance scale, developing the ambient background infrared calibration laboratory, setting up high heat flux calibrations, making accurate temperature measurements in rapid thermal processing, modeling diffraction effects, performing low-temperature radiance temperature and spectrophotometric calibrations, evaluating skin reflectance, understanding ageing effects in ceramics, setting up a synchrotron beamline, and improving spectrophotometry in the SWIR using extend InGaAs detectors.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction Germer, Zwinkels and Tsai 2. Theoretical concepts in spectrophotometric measurements Germer, Zwinkels and Tsai 3. Dispersive methods Gaertner, Yoon and Germer 4. Fourier transform methods Kaplan and Quijada 5. Regular reflectance and transmittance van Nijnatten 6. Diffuse reflectance and transmittance Höpe 7. Spectral fluorescence Zwinkels, DeRose and Lelan 8. Angle-resolved diffuse reflectance and scattering Germer, Stover and Schröder 9. Spectral emissivity measurements Watanabe, Ishii, Wakabayashi, Kumano, and Hanssen 10. Color and appearance Nadal, Wyble and Zarobila 11. The use of spectrophotometry in the pharmaceutical industry Hammond 12. Spectrophotometry applications: Remote sensing Bruegge, Davies, Schwandner, and Seidel 13. Microspectrophotometry Martin and Eyring