Spiral Grain and Wave Phenomena in Wood Formation

Spiral Grain and Wave Phenomena in Wood Formation

by John M. Harris

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642737817
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/10/2011
Series: Springer Series in Wood Science
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
Pages: 215
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Defining Spiral Grain.- 1.1 Patterns of Spirality.- 1.1.1 The Simple Spiral.- Direction of the Spiral.- Degree of Spirality.- Defect or Normal Growth?.- 1.1.2 Change in Spiral Angle and Direction.- Stem Pattern in Softwoods.- Stem Pattern in Hardwoods.- A Three-Dimensional View of Spiral Grain.- Pattern Down an Annual Increment.- 1.2 Interlocked Grain.- 1.3 Wavy Grain.- 1.4 Other Growth Patterns.- 1.4.1 Spiral Bole and Spiralled Branches.- 1.4.2 Birdseye and Dimples.- 1.4.3 Curly Birch.- 1.4.4 A Collection of Oddities.- 1.5 Conclusions.- 2 Measuring Grain Angle.- 2.1 Detection of Grain Angle.- 2.1.1 Detection in Trees and Round Produce.- Evidence from Radial Splits and Scars.- Evidence from Shape of Stem and Branches.- Evidence from Bark Patterns.- 2.1.2 Detection in Seedlings.- 2.1.3 Detection in Wood.- Natural Features.- Ink Test.- Dye Injection.- Radioactive Tracers.- Scribe Test.- Pick Test.- Splitting.- Sonic and Capacitance Properties.- Microscopic Observation.- 2.2 Sampling for Grain Angle.- 2.2.1 Destructive Sampling.- 2.2.2 Non-Destructive Sampling.- 2.3 Methods of Measurement and Analysis.- 2.3.1 Units of Measurement.- 2.3.2 Precision of Measurement.- Axis of Reference.- Techniques of Measurement.- 2.3.3 Measurements on Trees and Roundwood.- 2.3.4 Measurements on Sawn Timber.- 2.3.5 Measurements on Large Wood Samples.- 2.3.6 Measurements on Increment Cores.- 2.3.7 Measurements on Veneers.- 2.3.8 Analysis of Measurements.- 2.4 Measurement of Interlocked and Wavy Grain.- 2.5 Conclusions.- 3 Effects of Grain Angle on Wood Properties and Uses.- 3.1 Consequences of Anisotropy.- 3.2 Effects on Shrinkage.- 3.2.1 Warping in Sawn Timber.- 3.2.2 Movement in Roundwood.- 3.2.3 Warping in Plywood and Sliced Wood.- 3.3 Effects on Wood Strength.- 3.3.1 Strength of Sawn Timber.- 3.3.2 Strength of Tree Trunks and Roundwood.- 3.4 Effect on Other Aspects of Wood Physics.- 3.5 Effect on Conversion, Use and Economics.- 3.5.1 Effect on Conversion.- 3.5.2 Effects on Wood Use.- 3.6 Effect of Interlocked Grain.- 3.7 Effect of Wavy Grain.- 3.8 Conclusions.- 4 Spiral Grain in Relation to the Environment.- 4.1 Effect of Environmental Variables.- 4.1.1 Movement of Earth and Sun.- 4.1.2 Soil Conditions.- 4.1.3 Roots.- 4.1.4 Slope and Aspect.- 4.1.5 Wind.- 4.1.6 Altitude.- 4.1.7 Temperature.- 4.1.8 Eccentric Growth and Reaction Wood.- 4.1.9 Structural Breakage and Wounding.- 4.1.10 The Case for Environmental Influence.- 4.2 Effect of Growth Rate.- 4.2.1 Slow Growth, Increased Spirality.- 4.2.2 Fast Growth, Increased Spirality.- 4.2.3 Spirality Independent of Growth Rate.- 4.2.4 Other Consequences of Growth Rate.- 4.3 Balance of Controls.- 4.4 Effects of Silviculture.- 4.5 Advantages for Survival.- 4.6 Conclusions.- 5 Anatomy of Changing Grain Angles.- 5.1 The Role of Cell Structure.- 5.2 Cambium.- 5.2.1 Methods of Studying the Cambium.- 5.2.2 Nature of the Cambium.- 5.2.3 Cell Division.- Anticlinal Division.- Periclinal Division.- 5.2.4 Cell Survival.- 5.2.5 Cell Re-arrangement and Elongation.- 5.2.6 Plasticity of the Cambium.- 5.3 Morphogenetic Events.- 5.4 Cambial Domains.- 5.4.1 Domain Origins and Intensity.- 5.4.2 Domain Integrity.- 5.5 Wave Aspects of Domain Structure and Function.- 5.5.1 Wave Interactions.- 5.5.2 Complex Wave Interactions.- 5.6 Anatomy of Slow Changes.- 5.7 Conclusions.- 6 Genetics of Spiral Grain.- 6.1 Basic Requirements.- 6.1.1 Concept of Heritability.- 6.1.2 Genetic Gain and Potential for Improvement.- 6.2 Geographical Variation.- 6.2.1 Provenance Trials.- Provenances of Pinus radiata.- Provenances of Larix kaempferi.- Provenances of Pinus pinaster.- 6.2.2 Use of Provenances in Tree Breeding.- 6.3 Clonal Variation.- 6.3.1 Clonal Trials.- 6.3.2 Broad-Sense Heritability.- 6.4 Sexually Propagated Progeny.- 6.4.1 Narrow-Sense Heritability.- 6.5 Modification of Genotypes.- 6.6 Heritability of Wavy and Interlocked Grain.- 6.7 Strategies for Tree Improvement.- 6.8 Conclusions.- 7 Physiological Aspects of Changing Grain Angles.- 7.1 Requirements.- 7.2 Polarity.- 7.2.1 Manipulating Polarity.- 7.2.2 Patch Grafting.- 7.2.3 Implications for Polarity.- 7.3 The Role of Auxin.- 7.3.1 Auxin and Cambial Activity.- 7.3.2 Wave Patterns in Auxin Transport.- 7.3.3 Auxin and Morphogenesis.- 7.3.4 Response of Cambial Initials to Auxin Vectors.- 7.3.5 Orientation of Pseudotransverse Division.- 7.4 Other Factors.- 7.4.1 Environmental Causes.- 7.4.2 Microfibril Angle.- 7.4.3 Phyllotaxis.- 7.4.4 Time.- 7.4.5 Straight Grain and Uncontrolled Grain.- 7.5 Conclusions.- References.

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