Since the founding of St. Louis, African Americans have lived in communities throughout the area. Although St. Louis� 1916 �Segregation of the Negro Ordinance� was ruled unconstitutional, African Americans were restricted to certain areas through real estate practices such as steering and red lining. Through legal efforts in the court cases of Shelley v. Kraemer in 1948, Jones v. Mayer in 1978, and others, more housing options became available and the population dispersed. Many of the communities began to decline, disappear, or experience urban renewal.
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