Steroid-Protein Interactions II

Steroid-Protein Interactions II

by Ulrich Westphal

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642824883
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/21/2011
Series: Monographs on Endocrinology , #27
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986
Pages: 603
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.05(d)

Table of Contents

I. Steroid-Protein Interactions Revisited.- II. Serum Albumin.- A. The Steroid Binding Site of BSA and HSA.- 1. Three-Dimensional Structure.- 2. Possible Residues Involved.- B. Relation of Fatty Acid to Steroid Binding.- C. Steroid Binding to Oligomers of HSA.- D. Characteristics of Steroid Binding to Albumin.- 1. Effect of Calcium Ions.- 2. Influence of Protein Concentration.- 3. Steroid Binding to Albumin from Various Species.- 4. Binding Specificity of BSA.- E. Spin Label Studies.- III. ?1-Acid Glycoprotein (AAG, Orosomucoid).- A. Isolation of AAG.- 1. From Human Blood and Tissues.- 2. AAG from Other Species.- B. Studies on AAG Synthesis.- 1. Effect of Inflammation.- 2. Effects of Endocrines.- C. Chemical Properties.- 1. Peptide Moiety.- 2. Carbohydrate Moiety.- D. Molecular Properties.- 1. Variants.- 2. Thermostability.- E. Interaction with Steroids.- 1. Binding to AAG and Its Variants.- 2. Inhibition by Lipids.- 3. Chemical Modification of Amino Acid Residues.- 4. Spectral Studies.- a) Ultraviolet Absorption.- b) Fluorescence Quenching.- 5. Electron Spin Resonance.- IV. Some Recent Methodological Developments.- 1. Measurement of Unbound Steroid.- 2. Adsorption and Related Methods.- 3. Electrophoretic Methods.- 4. Equilibrium Dialysis, Scatchard Plots and Related Procedures.- V. Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin (CBG).- A. Biosynthesis.- 1. Rat.- 2. Guinea Pig.- 3. Chicken.- B. Hormonal and Other Influences on Blood CBG Level.- 1. Rat.- 2. Guinea Pig.- 3. Birds.- C. General Characteristics of CBG in Nonmammalian Vertebrates.- 1. Corticosteroid-Binding in Fish Serum.- 2. Corticosteroid-Binding in Amphibian Serum.- 3. Corticosteroid-Binding in Reptile Plasma.- 4. Corticosteroid-Binding in the Blood of Birds.- a) Chicken.- b) Duck.- c) Sparrow.- D. General Characteristics of CBG in Nonhuman Mammals.- 1. Marsupials.- 2. Mouse.- 3. Rat.- a) CBG in the Prenatal and Developing Postnatal Rat.- b) CBG in Inflammation and Other Conditions.- c) Characteristics of Purified Rat CBG.- d) CBG in Rat Milk.- 4. Hamster.- 5. Guinea Pig.- 6. Dog.- 7. Bovine.- 8. Sheep.- 9. Pig.- 10. Monkey.- 11. Cat, Horse, and Rabbit.- E. CBG-Like Steroid Binders.- 1. Rat and Other Laboratory Animals.- 2. Studies in Humans.- a) Various Tissues.- b) Milk and Other Secretions.- F. Biological Characteristics of CBG in Human Blood.- 1. Development of CBG in the Human.- 2. Periodicities of CBG level.- 3. Endocrine and Other Influences on CBG.- a) Estrogens.- b) Androgens.- c) Corticosteroids.- d) Thyroid Hormones.- e) Diabetes mellitus.- f) Other Pathological States.- G. Physicochemical Properties of Rabbit CBG.- 1. Polymerization.- 2. Electrophoretic Variants.- H. Physicochemical and Binding Properties of Guinea Pig CBG.- 1. Isolation and Characterization.- 2. Fluorescence Quenching and Steroid Binding.- 3. Thermodynamic Data.- 4. Binding Specificity.- I. Physicochemical and Binding Properties of Human CBG.- 1. Purification by Affinity Methods.- 2. Physicochemical Characteristics.- a) Physical Parameters; Composition.- b) Cysteine and Other Amino Acid Residues; Affinity Labeling.- c) Polymerization.- d) Electrophoretic Variants.- e) Desialylation of CBG.- 3. Electron Spin Resonance Studies.- 4. Influence of pH.- 5. Influence of Temperature.- 6. Binding Specificity.- 7. Kinetic Parameters.- a) Fluorescence Quenching.- b) pH Dependency.- c) Temperature Dependency.- VI. Progesterone-Binding Globulin (PBG).- A. Initial Studies.- B. Occurrence.- C. Origin.- D. Isolation and Physicochemical Properties.- 1. Purification.- 2. PBG I and PBG II.- 3. Polydispersity of PBG.- 4. Chemical Composition.- 5. PBG from Various Laboratories.- 6. SP-Sephadex and Affinity Chromatography.- E. Interaction with Steroids.- 1. Conformational Changes.- 2. Fluorescence Quenching upon Binding of 3-oxo-4-erie Steroids.- 3. Kinetics of the Interaction.- 4. Biological Significance of the Kinetic Parameters.- 5. Influence of pH on the Interaction.- 6. Chemical Modification.- F. Binding Specificity.- 1. Determination of Binding Affinities.- 2. Influence of Hydrophilic Groups on Binding Affinity.- 3. Influence of Hydrophobic Groups on Binding Affinity.- 4. Spatial Relations.- 5. Steroid Conformation and Crystal Structure.- 6. Steroid Binding to PBG and Other Progesterone-Binding Proteins.- 7. The Binding Site of PBG.- VII. Sex Steroid-Binding Protein (SBP).- A. Introduction.- B. Significance.- C. Methods to Determine SBP Concentration; Data for Human Blood.- D. SPB in Nonmammalian Vertebrates.- 1. Fish.- 2. Amphibians.- 3. Reptiles.- 4. Birds.- E. SBP in Nonhuman Mammals.- 1. Marsupials.- 2. Rat.- 3. Studies in Mouse, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Species.- 4. Badger, Fox, and Hedgehog.- 5. Little Brown Bat.- 6. Bovine.- 7. Dog.- 8. Rabbit.- 9. Nonhuman Primates.- c) Chimpanzee.- b) Baboon.- c) Macaque Monkeys.- F. Occurrence and Development of SBP in Humans.- G. Influence of Endocrines on SBP.- 1. Sex Hormones and Oral Contraceptives.- 2. Other Natural and Synthetic Agents.- H. SBP in Pathological Conditions.- 1. Genetic Considerations.- 2. Hypogonadism.- 3. Liver Disease.- 4. Obesity.- 5. Diabetes and Renal Failure.- 6. Stress.- 7. Cancer.- 8. Hirsutism.- I. Physicochemical Properties of Human SBP.- 1. Purification.- 2. Stability.- 3. Physical Parameters.- 4. Chemical Properties.- 5. Antibodies to SBP.- J. Steroid Binding to Human SBP.- 1. Binding Constants.- 2. Kinetic Parameters.- 3. Binding Specificity.- 4. Steroid Binding Distribution in the Circulating Blood.- K. The Binding Site of Human SBP.- 1. Planarity and C-5 Configuration.- 2. Structural and Steric Effects.- 3. State of Saturation.- 4. Interpretation and Its Limitations.- VIII. Hydrophobicity and Hydrophilicity of Steroid Binding Sites.- 1. Affinity Constants and Free Energy of Binding.- 2. Dissociation Rates.- 3. Hydrophobicity.- 4. Specificity of Binding; Additivity of ??G°.- 5. The Steroid Binding Site.- IX. Androgen-Binding Protein (ABP).- A. Introduction.- B. ABP in the Rat.- 1. Synthesis and Regulation.- 2. Determination.- 3. Purification and Characterization.- 4. Binding Affinity and Kinetics.- 5. Binding Specificity.- C. ABP in the Rabbit.- 1. Origin and General Characteristics.- 2. Physicochemical Properties.- D. ABP in Ram, Goat, and Bull.- E. ABP in Man.- F. Possible Function of ABP.- X. Prostatic Steroid-Binding Protein (PSB).- A. Early Observations.- B. General Characteristics of Rat PSB and Its Regulation.- C. Physicochemical and Steroid Binding Properties of Rat PSB.- 1. PSB.- 2. Prostatein.- 3. Estramustine-Binding Protein.- 4. Prostatic Protein.- D. Synthesis of PSB by Translation.- E. Structure of PSB Subunit Components.- F. PSB in Man and Other Species.- XI. Alpha-Fetoprotein.- A. Basic Observations.- 1. AFP in Humans and Rats.- 2. Sites of Biosynthesis.- 3. AFP in Cancer of the Liver.- B. Purification and Characterization of AFP from Different Species.- 1. Human AFP.- a) Purification and General Characteristics.- b) Physicochemical Properties.- c) Binding of Fatty Acids and Bilirubin.- 2. Rat AFP.- a) Occurrence and General Characteristics.- b) Electrophoretic Variants.- c) Physicochemical Properties; mRNA.- 3. Mouse AFP.- a) General Characteristics.- b) mRNA and Chemical Structure.- 4. AFPs from Other Species.- a) Rabbit AFP.- b) Bovine AFP.- c) Porcine AFP.- d) Ovine AFP.- e) Chicken AFP.- f) Shark AFP.- C. Binding of Estrogens to AFP.- 1. Rat AFP.- 2. Mouse AFP.- 3. Competition by Fatty Acids.- 4. Binding Specificity of Rat AFP.- D. Biological Role of AFP.- XII. Uteroglobin (Blastokinin).- A. Initial Observations.- B. Induction of Uteroglobin.- 1. Inducing Steroids.- 2. Role of Estradiol.- 3. Influence of Androgens.- C. Antibodies Against Uteroglobin.- D. Occurrence of Uteroglobin.- 1. In Organs Other Than Uterus.- 2. In Relatives of the Rabbit; Absence in Humans.- E. Physicochemical Properties of Uteroglobin.- F. Biosynthesis of Uteroglobin.- 1. In-vivo and in-vitro Studies.- 2. Induction at Transcriptional Level.- 3. Pre-Uteroglobin.- 4. Messenger RNA.- 5. Lung Uteroglobin.- 6. Mechanism.- 7. The Uteroglobin Gene.- G. Steroid Binding to Uteroglobin.- 1. General Conditions.- 2. Binding Specificity.- a) Pregnane Derivatives.- b) Other Steroids.- 3. Binding to Lung Uteroglobin.- 4. Spectral Observations.- 5. Chemical Modifications.- 6. Molecular and Crystallographic Parameters.- H. The Enigmatic Biological Function of Uteroglobin.- XIII. Ecdysteroid-Binding Proteins.- A. Ecdysteroids in the Hemolymph of Insects.- B. Proteins Binding with Low Affinity.- 1. Pyrrhocoris apterus.- 2. Drosophila.- 3. Calliphora.- a) Calliphorin, a Binder for Ecdysteroids.- b) Properties of Calliphorin.- c) Ecdysteroid-Calliphorin Interaction.- C. High-Affinity Binding.- 1. Locusta migratoria.- XIV. Sterol Carrier Protein (SCP).- A. Introduction.- B. SCP in Sterol Biosynthesis.- 1. SCP.- 2. Supernatant Protein Factor and SCP1.- 3. SCP2.- C. Properties of Sterol Carrier Proteins.- D. SCP-Like Proteins in Adrenal and Other Organs.- E. Additional Cholesterol-Transporting Proteins.- XV. Vitamin D- and Secosteroid Hormone-Binding Serum Proteins.- A. Early Observations.- B. Competitive Binding Analysis Using Vitamin D-Binding Proteins.- C. Determination of Vitamin D-Binding Protein (DBP).- D. General Aspects of DBP in Various Species.- E. Human DBP.- 1. Early Observations.- 2. Identity with the Group-Specific Component (Gc) Proteins.- 3. Purification and Characterization.- 4. Binding of Secosteroids.- 5. Conformational Changes.- F. Characterization of DBP in Other Vertebrates.- 1. Rat.- 2. Chick.- 3. Other Species.- G. DBP-Actin Complex.- H. Hepatic Origin of DBP.- I. Vitamin D Receptors.- 1. Non-mammalian Receptors.- 2. Mammalian Receptors.- J. Physiological Significance of DBP.- XVI. Antibodies to Steroid Hormones.- A. General Aspects.- B. Antibodies Against Digitalis Glycosides and Contraceptive Steroids.- C. Antibodies Against Estrogens.- 1. Specificity.- 2. Binding Affinity.- 3. Physicochemical Properties.- 4. D-Ring Substituents.- D. Antibodies Against Androgens.- 1. Some General Characteristics.- 2. Specificity and Affinity.- E. Antibodies Against Progestogens.- 1. Specificity and Affinity.- a) Anti-progesterone.- b) Other Anti-progestogens.- 2. Monoclonal Antibodies.- 3. Comparison of Progesterone Antibodies of the Guinea Pig with PBG.- F. Antibodies Against Corticosteroids.- 1. Glucocorticoids.- 2. Aldosterone.- G. Physiological Effects of Steroid Antibodies.- 1. Female Reproductive System.- a) Administration of Antibodies.- b) Active Immunization.- 2. Male Reproductive System.- a) Administration of Antibodies.- b) Active Immunization.- XVII. Binding of Steroids to Transforming Enzymes.- A. ?5-3-Ketosteroid Isomerase.- 1. From Pseudomonas testosteroni.- a) Molecular Properties.- b) Enzymatic Mechanism and Binding Specificity.- c) Chemical Nature of the Active/Binding Site.- 2. From Pseudomonas putida.- 3. Observations in Mammals.- B. 3-Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductases.- C. Estradiol 17?-Dehydrogenase from Human Placenta and Other Sources.- 1. Molecular Properties.- 2. Chemical Nature of the Active/Binding Site.- 3. 17?, 20?-Dual Activity.- D. Glutamic Dehydrogenase.- E. 20?-Hydroxy steroid Dehydrogenase from Streptomyces hydrogenans.- 1. General Properties: 3?, 20?-Dual Activity.- 2. Nature of the Active/Binding Site.- A. List of Abbreviations and Symbols.- B. Greek Symbols.- C. Names of Steroids and Other Compounds Used in the Monograph.- D. Adsorption of Steroids to Rubber and Plastics.

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