Steroids and Doping in Sports: A Reference Handbook

Steroids and Doping in Sports: A Reference Handbook

by David E. Newton

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781610693134
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/30/2013
Series: Contemporary World Issues Series
Pages: 320
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

David E. Newton is the author of more than 400 textbooks, encyclopedias, workbooks, and other educational materials, primarily in the field of science and math.

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures xiii

Preface xv

1 Background and History 3

The History of Performance-enhancing Drugs 4

Doping in the Modern Era 7

The Road to Testosterone 10

The Early Years 10

The Search for Testosterone 14

What Is Testosterone? 18

Derivatives of Testosterone 20

How Testosterone Works in the Human Body 24

Effects of Anabolic Steroids on the Human Body 30

Therapeutic Uses of Anabolic Steroids 35

Risks Associated with the Use of Anabolic Steroids 37

Appearance and Performance-enhancing Drug (APED) Use 40

Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Use 42

References 45

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 55

Anabolic Steroids in Nazi Germany 56

Doping in Athletic Competition, 1950-1970 59

Banning the Use of Anabolic Steroids 65

Testing Methodology 76

Problems Associated with Testing 83

"Beating the Game," 85

The 1970s: Doping Gone Wild 90

The Great Breakthrough: The 1980s 95

The 1990s: Steroid Use Ne Plus Ultra 100

The BALCO Scandal 101

Should Steroid Use Be Legal? 103

References 108

3 Perspectives 121

Using Steroids Ethically Bennett Foddy Julian Savulescu 122

The Problematic Character of the Case for Regulation of Steroids Lewis Kurlantzick 125

References 128

Denial and Dishonesty Adrianne Blue 129

References 131

Anabolic Steroids Should Be Legalized Dave Steen 132

Ethical Questions 133

Comparison with Legal Drugs 134

Comparison with Tobacco and Alcohol 134

The Consequences of Anti-AAS Legislation 135

References 135

Steroid Abuse and the Artificial Man Mark Fuerst 136

References 139

Legalizing Steroids-A Perspective Dean A. Haycock 139

References 142

Anabolic Steroids in the Treatment of Homosexuality Romeo Vitelli 143

References 146

A Brief Overview of Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transsexual Patients Jessica Sideways 146

Keeping an Eye on Steroid Abuse Nicholas A. Ratamess 150

References 154

4 Profiles 157

Patrick Arnold (1966-) 157

Joe Biden (1942-) 160

Barry Bonds (1964-) 162

Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) 165

Adolf Butenandt (1903-1995) 168

Jose Canseco (1964-) 170

Don Catlin (1938-) 172

Victor Come (1950-) 174

Daniel Duchaine (1952-2000) 177

I Won't Cheat Foundation 179

International Association of Athletics Foundation 181

Charles Kochakian (1908-1999) 185

Floyd Landis (1975-) 188

Ernst Laqueur (1880-1947) 190

George J. Mitchell (1933-) 192

National Institute on Drug Abuse 195

Dick Pound (1942-) 198

Leopold Ruzicka (1887-1976) 201

Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-) 203

The Taylor Hooton Foundation 206

United States Anti-Doping Agency 208

World Anti-Doping Agency 211

John Ziegler (ca. 1920-1983) 214

5 Data, and Documents 219

Data 219

Table 5.1 2010 Anti-Doping Organization Activity Summary, as Reported by Code Signatory Anti-Doping Organizations 220

Table 5.2 Percentage of High School Students Who Took Steroids by Sex, Race/ethnicity, and Grade-United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2009 223

Table 5.3 Percentage of High School Students Who Took Steroids by Sex-Selected U.S. Sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2009 224

Table 5.4 Percentage of High School Students Who Used Selected Other Illicit Drugs by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Grade, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1991-2009 226

Table 5.5 Adult Use of Anabolic Steroids, 1994 227

Documents 228

Drug Misuse: Anabolic Steroids and Human Growth Hormone (1989) 228

Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 230

H.R.3866-Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 231

Anabolic Steroids Are Easily Purchased Without a Prescription and Present Significant Challenges to Law Enforcement Officials (2005) 232

Clean Sports Act of 2005 235

Mitchell Report (2007) 238

Effectiveness of Federal Anabolic Steroid Prevention Programs (2007) 240

United States of America v. Marion Jones (2007) 242

Mandatory Steroid Testing for High School Students in New Jersey (2007) 244

Anabolic Steroid Ban on Horse Racing in Kentucky (2008) 246

Uci v. Alberto Contador Velasco & RFEC and Wada v. Alberto Contador Velasco & RFEC (2012) 248

6 Resources 253

Books 253

Articles 263

Reports 275

Internet 276

7 Chronology 291

Glossary 303

Index 309

About the Author 319

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