Strategic Brand Management / Edition 3 available in Hardcover
About the Author
Previously, Professor Keller was on the faculty of the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University, where he also served as the head of the marketing group. Additionally, he has been on the faculty of the Schools of Business Administration at the University of California at Berkeley and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, been Visiting Professor at the Australian Graduate School of Management, and has two years of industry experience as Marketing Consultant for Bank of America.
Professor Keller's general area of expertise lies in consumer marketing. His specific research interest is in how understanding theories and concepts related to consumer behavior can improve advertising and branding strategies. His advertising and branding research has been published in three of the major marketing journals -- the Journal of Marketing, the Journal of Marketing Research, and the Journal of Consumer Research. He also sits on the Editorial Review Boards of those journals. His research has been widely-cited and has received numerous awards from organizations such as the American Marketing Association, the Marketing Science Institute, the Association for Consumer Research, and the American Psychological Association. His article, "Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity" received the 1993 Harold H. Maynard award for the Journal of Marketing article making the most significant contribution to marketing theory and thought.
Professor Keller is acknowledged as one of the international leaders in the study of integrated marketing communications and strategic brand management. He has conducted marketing seminars on those topics to top executives in a variety of forums. Actively involved with industry, he has worked on cases or projects with marketing managers for companies such as Intel, Levi-Strauss, Disney, Nike, Starbucks, Nordstrom, Kodak, Goodyear, Shell Oil, Silicon Graphics, Mayo Clinic, Wolverine Worldwide (Hush Puppies), and Beiersdorf AG (Nivea). He is currently conducting a variety of studies that address strategies to build, measure, and manage brand equity. Strategic Brand Management is his first book.
Table of ContentsPrologue.
I. OPENING PERSPECTIVES.1. Brands and Brand Management.
2. Customer-Based Brand Equity.
II. BUILDING BRAND EQUITY.3. Brand Positioning and Valves.
4. Choosing Brand Elements to Build Brand Equity.
5. Designing Marketing Programs to Build Brand Equity.
6. Integrating Marketing Communications to Build Brand Equity.
7. Leveraging Secondary Brand Knowledge to Build Brand Equity.
III. MEASURING BRAND EQUITY.8. Developing Brand Equity Measurement and Management System.
9. Measuring Sources of Brand Equity.
10. Measuring Outcomes of Brand Equity.
IV. MANAGING BRAND EQUITY.11. Design and Implementing Branding Strategies.
12. Introducing and Naming New Products and Brand Extensions.
13. Managing Brands Over Time.
14. Managing Brands Over Geographical Boundaries and Market Segments.
APPLICATIONS.15. Closing Observations.
What People are Saying About This
The successful care and feeding of a brand is an amazingly complex topic. Keller's book does a superb job of examining the many factors that need to be considered. The chapters on measuring brand equity will be of special interest to marketing practitioners. (Dennis Carter, Vice President, Sales and Marketing Intel Corporation)
Branding is in the midst of a renaissance and Kevin Keller's Strategic Brand Management can be recommended as the reference source to all those concerned with building and managing brands. This is an exceptionally comprehensive treatment of the subject, full of valuable analytic and rich insights.
Al Silk, HBS Lincoln Filene Professor Harvard Business School
Keller's book is a rare success at combining practical advice and real substance. Further, there are a host of examples and five comprehensive case studies that provide a wealth of insight about brands and brand building. An excellent contribution.
David Aaker, Professor of Marketing Strategy University of California at Berkeley Author of Building Strong Brands
After reading Strategic Brand Management, my 'associations' with the Kevin Keller brand of Marketing thinking: strong, favorable and unique! But not unexpected. I've worked with Professor Keller for a decade or more and our shared belief in the critical role of the brand in successful marketing strategies is beautifully played out in this brilliant text.
Steve Goldstein, Vice-President Marketing and Research Levi's Brand U.S.A.
Keller understands that building a brand is both an art and a science. It's the strategic mix of focus and risk that gives a brand its meaning in people's lives.
Liz Dolan, Vice-President of Marketing Communication Nike, Inc.
WHAT IS THE BOOK ABOUT?
This book deals with brandswhy they are important, what they represent to consumers, and what should be done by firms to manage them properly. As many business executives now recognize, perhaps one of the most valuable assets that a firm has is the brands that the firm has invested in and developed over time. Although manufacturing processes and factory designs often can be duplicated, strongly held beliefs and attitudes established in the minds of consumers often cannot be so easily reproduced. The difficulty and expense of introducing new products, however, puts more pressure than ever on firms to skillfully launch their new products as well as manage their existing brands.
Although brands may represent invaluable intangible assets, creating and nurturing a strong brand poses considerable challenges. Fortunately, the concept of brand equitythe main focus of this bookcan provide marketers valuable perspective and a common denominator to interpret the potential effects and tradeoffs of various strategies and tactics for their brands. Fundamentally, the brand equity concept stresses the importance of the role of the brand in marketing strategies. Brand equity relates to the fact that different outcomes result from the marketing of a product or service because of its brand name or some other brand elementthan if that same product or service did not have that brand identification. In other words, brand equity can be thought of as the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand. In a practical sense, brand equity represents the added value endowed to a product as a result of past investments in the marketing activity for a brand. Brand equity serves as the bridge between what happened to the brand in the past and what should happen to the brand in the future.
The chief purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the subjects of brands, brand equity, and strategic brand management. Strategic brand management involves the design and implementation of marketing programs and activities to build, measure, and manage brand equity. An important goal of the book is to provide managers with concepts and techniques to improve the long-term profitability of their brand strategies. The book incorporates current thinking and developments on these topics from both academics and industry participants. The book combines a comprehensive theoretical foundation with numerous practical insights to assist managers in their day-to-day and long-term brand decisions. Illustrative examples and case studies are based on brands marketed in the United States and all over the world.
Specifically, the book provides insights into how profitable brand strategies can be created by building, measuring, and managing brand equity. It addresses three important questions:
- How can brand equity be created?
- How can brand equity be measured?
- How can brand equity be used to expand business opportunities?
In addressing these questions, the book is written to deliver a number of benefits. Readers will learn the following:
- The role of brands, the concept of brand equity, and the advantages of creating strong brands
- The three main ways to build brand equity by properly choosing brand elements, designing supporting marketing programs, and leveraging secondary associations
- Different approaches to measure brand equity and how to implement a brand equity measurement system
- Alternative branding strategies and how to devise brand hierarchies and brand portfolios
- The role of corporate brands, family brands, individual brands, and brand modifiers, and how they can be combined into sub-brands
- How to adjust branding strategies over time and geographic boundaries to maximize brand equity
WHAT IS DIFFERENT ABOUT THIS BOOK?
In writing this book, the objective was to satisfy three key criteria by which any marketing text can be judged:
- Depth: The material in the book had to be presented in the context of a conceptual framework that was comprehensive, internally consistent and cohesive, and well grounded in the academic and practitioner literature.
- Breadth: The book had to cover all those topics that practicing managers and students of brand management found interesting or important.
- Relevance: Finally, the book had to be well grounded in practice and easily related to past and present marketing activities, events, and case studies.
Although a number of excellent books have been written about brands, no book has really maximized these three dimensions to the greatest possible extent. Accordingly, this book set out to fill that gap by accomplishing three things. First, the book develops a framework that provides a definition of brand equity, identifies sources and outcomes of brand equity, and provides tactical guidelines as to how to build, measure, and manage brand equity. Recognizing the general importance of consumers and customers to marketing (i.e., the necessity of understanding and satisfying their needs and wants), this framework approaches branding from the perspective of the consumer and is referred to as customer-based brand equity. Second, besides these broad, fundamentally important branding topics, over 30 Science of Branding boxes provide in-depth treatment of cutting-edge ideas and concepts, and each chapter contains a Brand Focus appendix that delves into detail on specific, related branding topics such as brand audits, legal issues, brand crises, and corporate name changes. Finally, to maximize relevance, numerous examples are included to illuminate the discussion on virtually every topic, and over 100 Branding Briefs are included to provide more in-depth examination of certain topics or brands.
Thus, this book can help readers understand the important issues in planning and evaluating brand strategies, as well as provide appropriate concepts, theories, and other tools to make better branding decisions. The book identifies successful and unsuccessful brand marketersand why they have been so. Readers will gain a greater appreciation of the range of issues covered in branding as well as a means to organize their thoughts about those issues.
WHO SHOULD READ THIS BOOK?
A wide range of people can benefit from reading this book:
- Students interested in increasing both their understanding of basic branding principles and their exposure to classic and contemporary branding applications and case studies
- Managers and analysts concerned with the effects of their day-to-day marketing decisions on brand performance
- Senior executives concerned with the longer-term prosperity of their brand franchises and product or service portfolios
- All marketers interested in new ideas with implications for marketing strategies and tactics
The perspective adopted in the book is relevant to any type of organization (public or private, large or small), and the examples provided cover a wide range of industries and geographies. To facilitate understanding of branding concepts across different settings, specific applications to industrial, high-tech, online, service, retailer, and small-business brands are reviewed in Chapters 1 and 15.
HOW IS THE BOOK ORGANIZED?
The book is divided into six major parts, adhering to the "three-exposure opportunity" approach to learning new material. Part I introduces branding concepts; Parts II, III, IV, and V provide all the specific details of those concepts; and Part VI summarizes and applies the concepts in various contexts. The specific chapters for each part and their contents are as follows.
Part I sets the stage for the book by providing the "big picture" of what strategic brand management is all about. The goal of these chapters is to provide a sense of the content and context of strategic brand management by identifying key branding decisions and suggesting some of the important considerations for those decisions. Specifically, Chapter 1 introduces some basic notions about brands and the role that they have played and are playing in marketing strategies. Chapter 1 defines what a brand is, why brands matter, and how anything can be branded and provides an overview of the strategic brand management process.
Part II addresses the topic of brand equity and provides a blueprint for the rest of the book. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of customer-based brand equity, outlines the customer-based brand equity framework, and summarizes guidelines for building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. The first two chapters provide a useful overview of the scope and topics covered in the book. As such, they provide an excellent "top-line summary" for readers who want to sample the flavor of the book or who do not have the time to read all of the chapters. Chapter 3 develops a conceptual model of brand knowledge and addresses the critically important issue of competitive brand positioning.
Part III examines the three major ways to build customer-based brand equity, taking more of a "single product-single brand" perspective. Chapter 4 addresses the first way to build customer-based brand equity and how to choose brand elements (i.e., brand names, logos, symbols, slogans, and so forth) and the role they play in contributing to brand equity. Chapters 5 and 6 are concerned with the second way to build brand equity and how to optimize the marketing mix to create customer-based brand equity. Chapter 5 is concerned with product, pricing, and distribution strategies; Chapter 6 is devoted to the topic of creating integrated marketing communication programs to build brand equity. Although most readers are probably familiar with these "4 Ps" of marketing, it can be illuminating to consider them from the standpoint of brand equity and the effects of brand knowledge on consumer response to marketing mix activity and vice versa. Finally, Chapter 7 examines the third major way to build brand equity: leveraging secondary associations from other entities (e.g., companies, geographic regions, persons, other brands, and so on).
Part IV looks at how to measure customer-based brand equity. These chapters take a detailed look at what consumers know about brands, what marketers want them to know, and how marketers can develop measurement procedures to assess how well they are doing. Chapter 8 provides a big-picture perspective of these topics, introducing the brand value chain and examining how to develop and implement a brand equity measurement system. Chapter 9 examines approaches to measure customers' brand knowledge structures in order to be able to identify and quantify potential sources of brand equity. Chapter 10 examines how to measure potential outcomes of brand equity in terms of the major benefits a firm accrues from these sources of brand equity.
Part V addresses how to manage brand equity, taking a broader, "multiple product-multiple brand" perspective as well as a longer-term, multiple-market perspective to brands. Chapter 11 considers issues related to branding strategies (e.g., which brand elements a firm chooses to apply across the various products it sells) and how brand equity can be maximized across all the different brands and products that might be sold by a firm. Chapter 11 describes two important tools to help formulate branding strategies: the brand-product matrix and the brand hierarchy. Chapter 12 outlines the pros and cons of brand extensions and develops guidelines to facilitate the introduction and naming of new products and brand extensions. Chapter 13 considers how to reinforce, revitalize, and retire brands, examining a number of specific topics in managing brands over time, such as the advantages of maintaining brand consistency, the importance of protecting sources of brand equity, and tradeoffs between fortifying and leveraging brands. Chapter 14 examines the implications of differences in consumer behavior and the existence of different types of market segments on managing brand equity. Particular attention is paid to international issues and global branding strategies.
Finally, Part VI considers some implications and applications of the customer-based brand equity framework. Chapter 15 highlights managerial guidelines and key themes that emerged in earlier chapters of the book. The chapter also summarizes success factors for branding, applies the customer-based brand equity framework to address specific strategic brand management issues for different types of products (i.e., industrial goods, high-tech products, online brands, services, retailers, and small businesses), and relates the framework to several other popular views of brand equity.
REVISION STRATEGY FOR THE SECOND EDITION
The overarching goal of the revision of Strategic Brand Management was to preserve the aspects of the text that worked well but to improve it as much as possible and add new material as needed. The main objective of the second edition was to again maximize three dimensions: depth, breadth, and relevance. The customer-based brand equity framework that was the centerpiece of the first edition was retained but embellished in several significant ways. Given all the academic research progress that has been made in recent years as well as new market developments and events, the book required and was given some substantial updates.
Specifically, there were six objectives to the revision, as follows:
- Overhaul the conceptual thrust of certain chapters.
- Adopt a stronger technological and global perspective.
- Update Branding Briefs and academic references.
- Streamline chapters.
- Update original cases and introduce new cases.
- Provide better presentation of text material and stronger supplementary support.
Overhaul the Conceptual Thrust of Certain Chapters
A number of chapters reflect new thinking and concepts.
- Chapter l: The chapter now formally introduces the strategic brand management process.
- Chapter 2: This chapter is now organized around the customer-based brand equity pyramid that describes the four steps (identity, meaning, response, and relationships) and six different types of core brand values (salience, performance, image, judgments, feelings, and resonance) necessary to build a brand. This detailed framework helps to provide more structure to the consumer brand knowledge topics as well as tie more directly into how to build brand equity, the thrust of the next four chapters.
- Chapter 3: New positioning material is included to further develop the book's unique competitive brand positioning model and the key concepts of points of parity and points of difference.
- Chapter 6: A new set of criteria is included on how to evaluate integrated marketing communication programs.
- Chapter 7: A revised framework for brand leverage is used as an organizing device.
- Chapters 8, 9, and 10: The material from Chapter 10 of the first edition has been combined with new material on the brand value chain to create a new Chapter 8 that provides a big-picture perspective on the theory and practice of measuring brand equity. The material on research techniques and approaches has been updated and augmented and placed in new Chapters 9 and 10.
- Chapter 14: To provide clearer focus, global brand management guidelines are presented in terms of the "Ten Commandments of Global Branding."
- Chapter 15: New summary comments and future branding priorities are included to provide contemporary perspectives.
Adopt a Stronger Technological and Global Perspective
Technology and online brands and concepts are highlighted throughout the book. Specifically, Chapter 1 introduces both high-tech and online brands as key branding applications. Special attention is paid to URLs and naming Web sites in Chapter 4; Web design and service issues in Chapter 5; and the Internet as a communication tool and brand builder in Chapter 6. Finally, Chapter 15 has detailed sections on how to build high-tech and online brands. In terms of global perspectives, besides Chapter 14, a stronger global flavor is found in the text examples and the Branding Briefs.
Update Branding Briefs and Academic References
Over half of the examples within the text and the 100-plus Branding Briefs have been replaced with more current material. The goal was to blend classic and contemporary examples, so some appropriate examples were retained from the first edition. The academic references throughout the book have also been brought up to date.
Lengthy passages and examples have been edited. Each chapter includes a Brand Focus appendix that includes more detailed material or material that might disrupt the flow of the chapter. Examples include the history of branding in Chapter 1, brand audit guidelines in Chapter 2, private labels in Chapter 5, crisis marketing in Chapter 6, and corporate name changes in Chapter 13.
Update Original Cases and Introduce New Cases
To provide broader, more relevant coverage, the cases have been removed from the back of the book, updated, and placed in a separate casebook. Seven new cases that cover even more branding topics have also been included in the casebook: Starbucks, DuPont, Snapple, Accenture, Red Bull, MTV, and Yahoo.
Provide Better Presentation of Text Material and Stronger Supplementary Support
The text includes more schematics and figures that help to summarize key conceptual material. All critical figures are reprinted in the instructor's manual. The instructor's manual has been expanded to provide more help for classroom instruction and provide guidance for experiential learning.
HOW CAN A READER GET THE MOST OUT OF THIS BOOK?
Branding is a fascinating topic that has received much attention in the popular press. The ideas presented in the book will help readers interpret current branding developments. One good way to better understand branding and the customer-based brand equity framework is to apply the concepts and ideas that were presented in the book to current events or any of the more detailed branding issues or case studies presented in the Branding Briefs. The Discussion Questions at the end of the chapters often ask readers to pick a brand and apply one or more concepts from that chapter. Focusing on one brand across all of the questionsperhaps as part of a class projectpermits some cumulative and integrated learning and is an excellent way to become more comfortable and facile with the material in the book.
Although it is a trite saying, this book truly belongs to the reader. As with most marketing, branding does not involve "right" or "wrong" answers, and readers should question things they do not understand or do not believe. This book is designed to facilitate your understanding of what is involved with strategic brand management and present some "best practice" guidelines. At the end of the day, however, what you get out of the book will be what you put into it and how you blend the ideas contained in these pages with what you already know or believe.