Streamlining Non-Tariff Measures: A Toolkit for Policy Makers

Streamlining Non-Tariff Measures: A Toolkit for Policy Makers


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"This toolkit provides a novel approach and a set of tools that allow policymakers and analysts to identify non-tariff measures (NTMs), assess their trade restrictiveness and impact on prices and welfare, and to strengthen the institutional coordination mechanism, transparency, and regulatory governance on NTMs. It also aims at encouraging economies to increasingly address the NTM agenda from a domestic competitiveness and/or poverty perspective rather than from a mercantilist standpoint of concessions to trading partners.NTMs are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. While most NTMs are already subject to WTO disciplines, the main challenge is to allow governments to address public policy concerns without unnecessarily hurting trade competitiveness and while preventing disguised protectionism.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780821395103
Publisher: Bernan Distribution
Publication date: 05/14/2012
Series: Directions in Development
Pages: 208
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.44(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword ix

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Authors xv

Abbreviations xvii

Overview 1

Chapter 1 NTMs: Definition, Data, and International Regulations 9

The New NTM Dataset 10

Living Up to International Commitments 21

Notes 33

References 34

Chapter 2 Streamlining NTMs: The Issues 37

Beginning the NTM Review 40

Reassessing the Benefits of Government Intervention 41

Reassessing the Costs of Government Intervention 46

Assessing the Sourcing Costs of NTMs 48

Balancing Costs and Benefits 52

Notes 59

References 60

Chapter 3 Streamlining NTMs: Processes and Institutions 63

Getting the Institutional Setup Right 64

Steps in the NTM Review Process 72

Annex: Approaches to Streamlining Existing NTMs 81

Notes 83

References 84

Chapter 4 Country and Region Experiences with Streamlining NTMs 87

Unilaterally Driven Reforms 87

Reforms Anchored in Regional Integration 108

Notes 118

References 119

Chapter 5 Streamlining NTMs: Case Studies 121

An SPS Measure: Import Ban and Environmental Protection 121

A TBT Measure and Incoherence along the Value Chain 127

Prohibition and Its Impact on Welfare 128

Notes 132

Appendix A UNCTAD NTM Classification, February 2012 133

Appendix B Request Form for NTM Review 171

Appendix C Questionnaire for the Review of Existing NTMs 173

Appendix D Price Gap and Welfare 179


2.1 NTMs and the Case for Risk Management in Border Agencies 58

3.1 Brazil Challenges in Regulatory Reforms: Some Preliminary Lessons 65

3.2 Institutional Setup to Streamline New NTMs in Indonesia 70

3.3 Regulatory Reform in Mexico 74

4.1 Mexico Standards Modernization: The Case of Food Labeling 94

4.2 Two Regulations That Hurt the Competitiveness of Mauritian Firms 99

4.3 The Tripartite NTB Monitoring Mechanism 114

4.4 CEFTA and TBTs 117

5.1 Risks to the Environment: A Biologist's Expert Opinion 125


0.1 NTM Toolkit Howchart 5

1.1 NTM Classification by Chapter (first tier) 11

1.2 Frequency Index and Coverage Ratios by Chapter of NTM 13

1.3 Frequency Index and Coverage Ratios by Region and Chapter of NTM 15

1.4 Frequency Indices and Coverage Ratios, by Country 16

1.5 Seven Most Prevailing Types of NTMs Experienced by Surveyed Companies as NTBs, by Regional Destination 20

2.1 Flowchart of an NTM Review 42

2.2 Costs and Benefits of a Technical Regulation: The Case of Organic Shrimp 54

3.1 Political Commitment and NTM Reforms 64

3.2 Sample Institutional Setup for NTM Review 69

3.3 SOPs for Introducing NTMs in the Indonesia Ministry of Trade 71

3.4 Review Process Flow 76

4.1 Numbers of Products Subject to NTMs in Indonesia 104

4.2 NTMs Issued by Agency 105

5.1 Decline in Mauritius Exports of Cut Flowers (HS 060310) 123

5.2 Real-Income Gain from Eliminating Import Bans, by Income Level and Product Category 131


1.1 NTMs Experienced by Exporting Companies as NTBs 19

2.1 BCC Categories of Compliance Costs 47

2.2 Average Domestic Price Indices by Category (world average = 100), Indonesia and the Philippines 51

4.1 NTM Classification Following WTO Consistency-Criteria 110

B4.3.1 NTBs Cited in the NTBMM 115

5.1 Nigeria's Prohibited Imports 129

5.2 Price Gap Calculations, Lagos vs. Nairobi (% of price gap) 130

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