The U.S. Army is undergoing transformation in several areas. It is acquiring lighter, more agile, and more lethal weapons with survivability at least equal to current systems, improving communications to link units horizontally and vertically into a system of systems, and restructuring fighting units. The importance of technology in these changes raises the question, should the Army's science and technology (S&T) program also be transformed? If so, what changes are needed? These two papers consider models for managing the Army laboratories, including the mode of operations (in-house, extramural, collaborations) and the means by which the Army can be assured that its technical enterprise is state of the art. The first paper discusses how to evaluate the level of excellence in the laboratories and how to address technical challenges in areas where the laboratories lack the necessary expertise. The paper recommends steps to strengthen the laboratories, including more extensive formal technology collaborations with the private sector. The second paper recommends ways to assure that the Army is fully aware of developments in science and technology, not only in areas where the Army has considerable expertise, but also where the Army is not expert and where technology is advancing rapidly. Taken together, the papers present opportunities to move the Army S&T program ahead without disrupting the current operations of the laboratories.