ISBN-10:
1412904781
ISBN-13:
2901412904789
Pub. Date:
09/13/2004
Publisher:
SAGE Publications
Stress and Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions / Edition 2

Stress and Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions / Edition 2

by William R. Lovallo

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901412904789
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 09/13/2004
Edition description: Second Edition
Pages: 294
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

William R. Lovallo (Ph D, biological psychology, University of Oklahoma, 1978) conducts research on relationships between stress, biological responses, and their implications for health. His current projects address cardiovascular and endocrine responses during mental stress and effects on persons at risk for alcoholism and other addictions. He has served as director of the Behavioral Sciences Laboratories and as senior research career scientist at the VA Medical Center and is professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City. Lovallo has also served as associate director of the John D. and Catherine T. Mac Arthur Foundation's Research Network on Mind-Body Interactions. He is on advisory committees for the National Institutes of Health and the Veterans Administration.

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
Acknowledgmentsxiii
1.Behavioral Medicine and Biomedicine1
The Age of Enlightenment and the Emergence of Scientific Thought3
Claude Bernard and the Modern Biomedical Model8
Summary9
2.Psychosocial Models of Health and Disease11
The Standard Biomedical Model and New Approaches to Medicine12
A Biobehavioral Model of Disease and Treatment15
Placebo Effects17
Cultural, Intrapersonal, and Physiological Influences in Coronary Heart Disease22
Psychosocial Theories of Disease and Treatment24
The Foundation of Behavioral Medicine25
Summary27
3.History of the Concept of Stress29
Claude Bernard and the Concept of the Internal Environment32
Walter Cannon and the Concept of Homeostasis34
Hans Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome35
The Concept of Allostasis37
Stress Responses Are a Part of Normal Physiological Regulation38
Summary39
4.Homeostatic Regulation41
A Hierarchy of Homeostatic Controls43
Intrinsic Control Mechanisms44
Autonomic and Endocrine Controls Over Homeostasis45
Three Autonomic Divisions46
Coordinated Actions of the Autonomic Branches51
Central Autonomic Control by the Brainstem52
The Endocrine Response During Stress55
Summary60
5.Physical and Psychological Stress63
Classes of Stress Responses64
The Exercise Response65
The Fight-or-Flight Response69
Different Emotions and Motivations Accompany Exercise and Fight-or-Flight71
Why Is Exercise Considered Good if It Is a Stressor?72
Psychological Stress72
Responses to Aversive and Nonaversive Challenges74
Activation and Distress78
Discussion79
Summary81
6.Central Nervous System Integrations of the Psychological Stress Response83
Appraisals, Psychological Stress, and Negative Emotions84
Central Integration of the Response to Psychological Stress89
Sensory Intake and Interpretation of the Environment94
Cognition and Emotion: Generating Emotions Based on Appraisal Processes96
Initiation of Behavioral, Autonomic, and Neuroendocrine Responses to Psychological Stressors105
Feedback to the Cortex and Limbic System: The Central Feedback Subsystem106
Autonomic and Endocrine Outflow: The Brainstem Response Subsystem109
Summary111
7.Stress and the Endocrine System113
Overview of Stress Endocrine Regulation113
Activation of Stress Endocrine Secretion and the Central Corticotropin Releasing Factor System114
Cortisol's Actions at the Central Nervous System118
Amygdala Responses to Cortisol and Altered Responsivity of the Central Nervous System120
Amygdala Sensitization and Implications for Health121
The Hypothalamic-Sympatho-Adrenomedullary Axis123
Amygdala and Hippocampal Responses to Stress Hormone Feedback: Modulation of Emotional Memory Formation and Working Memory124
Stress Endocrine Secretion and Regulation of Long-Term Stress Reactivity127
Hierarchy of Autonomic and Endocrine Controls Over Homeostasis128
The Formation of Psychological Stress Responses Revisited129
8.The Immune System and Behavior133
Overview of the Immune System133
Structural Components of the Immune System134
Immune System Messengers137
Innate Resistance138
Acquired Resistance and Establishment of Immune System Memory139
The Behavior-Immune Interface142
Behavior-Immune Interactions and Health Indicators144
Stress Buffers, Positive Emotions, and Physical Health152
Discussion153
Summary154
9.Helplessness, Coping, and Health157
Death Due to Uncontrollable Stress157
Helplessness and Exposure to Uncontrollable Stress163
Studies of Ulceration in Rats165
Learned Helplessness and the Consequences of Lack of Control168
Central Neurotransmitters and Severe Stress170
Uncontrollable Shock, Norepinephrine, and Depression171
Serotonin Mechanisms172
Emotions and Health173
Discussion174
Summary176
10.Genes, Stress, and Behavior179
Early Life Experience, Gene Expression, and Stress Reactivity180
Genotype, Early Experience, and Psychobehavioral Outcomes186
Discussion191
Summary194
11.Individual Differences in Reactivity to Stress197
Persons May Differ in Stress Reactivity Because of Inborn Factors or Experience198
Individual Differences in Stress Responses May Be Determined by Functional Alterations at Three Levels in the System199
Individual Differences in Hypothalamic and Brainstem Responses to Stress208
Individual Differences in Peripheral Responses to Stress213
Health Outcomes Related to Cardiovascular and Endocrine Response Tendencies214
Discussion218
Summary219
12.Behavior, Stress, and Health221
The Historical Dilemma of Mind-Body Dualism221
Matter and Behavior223
Behavioral Medicine in Relation to Traditional Medicine228
Systems Organization and Stress229
Psychological Stress and Its Consequences230
Stress and Behavioral Medicine232
Stress Reduction and Improved Health233
Summary234
References237
Author Index255
Subject Index263
About the Author279

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