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Springer Berlin Heidelberg
String Theory and Fundamental Interactions: Gabriele Veneziano and Theoretical Physics: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives / Edition 1

String Theory and Fundamental Interactions: Gabriele Veneziano and Theoretical Physics: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives / Edition 1

by Maurizio Gasperini, Jnan Maharana


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540742326
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 01/08/2008
Series: Lecture Notes in Physics , #737
Edition description: 2008
Pages: 974
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.06(d)

Table of Contents

Gabriele Veneziano: A Concise Scientific Biography and an Interview   M. Gasperini   J. Maharana     3
Biographical Notes     3
List of Collaborators of Gabriele Veneziano (Updated to 2006)     10
An Interview with Gabriele Veneziano     11
References     16
An Unpublished Draft by Gabriele Veneziano (1973): "Non-local Field Theory Suggested by Dual Models"   G. Veneziano     29
Introduction and Content of the Paper     29
Yukawa's Non-local Field Theory     31
The Zero Slope (Local) Limit of Dual Models     34
The Correspondence Principle     37
Non-Local, Classical Field Theory     40
Smeared Fields     41
References     43
Dual Resonance Models and String Theory
The Birth of the Veneziano Model and String Theory   H. Rubinstein     47
The Weizmann Institute in January 1966 and the Work Leading to the Veneziano Model     47
The Dominant Problems from 1950 to 1970     49
The Breakthrough     54
The Early Phenomenology     55
Conclusion     56
References     57
The Birth of String Theory   P. Di Vecchia     59
Introduction     59
Construction of the N-point Amplitude     64
Operator Formalism and Factorization     72
The Case [alpha subscript 0] = 1     78
Physical States and Their Vertex Operators     85
The DDF States and Absence of Ghosts     90
The Zero Slope Limit     94
Loop Diagrams     97
From Dual Models to String Theory     107
Conclusions     114
References     115
The Beginning of String Theory: A Historical Sketch   P. Di Vecchia   A. Schwimmer     119
Introduction     119
Prehistory: the Discovery of the Dual Scattering Amplitudes     120
The String World Sheet Through Factorization of the N-point amplitudes     125
The Virasoro Conditions     128
The Critical Dimension     132
Conclusions     134
References     135
The Little Story of an Algebra   M. A. Virasoro     137
Introduction     137
The Context     137
References     143
Perturbative QCD
Parton Densities: A Personal Retrospective   R. Petronzio     147
References      149
Infrared-sensitive Physics in QCD and in Electroweak Theory   M. Ciafaloni     151
Infrared-sensitive Observables     151
QCD Form Factors, Multiplicities, Preconfinement     153
Inclusive Electroweak Double Logarithms     155
References     157
From QCD Lagrangian to Monte Carlo Simulation   G. Marchesini     159
The Status     159
Structure of Monte Carlo generator     160
The Long Way to Monte Carlo     161
Multi-gluon Soft Distributions     168
Monte Carlo Simulation for Soft Emission     174
From Partons to Hadrons     176
Conclusion     177
References     178
Fracture Functions   L. Trentadue     181
Introduction and Motivations     181
Formalism and Definitions     184
Applications and Phenomenology     201
Jet Cross sections and Fracture Functions     214
Conclusions     217
References     218
Non-perturbative QCD
Coherence and Incoherence in QCD Jets Dynamics (QCD Jets and Branching Processes)   A. Giovannini   R. Ugoccioni     223
Introduction     223
Elementary Models and Unexplained Facts in Multiparticle Dynamics in the Early 1970s     224
KUV Differential Evolution Equations and the Advent of QCD in the Late 1970s     225
The Collaboration with Leon Van Hove, and the UA5 Collaboration Results at CERN pp Collider on Multiplicity Distributions, in Full Phase Space and in Restricted Pseudo-rapidity Windows     228
New Experimental Findings on Final Charged Particle MD in e[superscript +]e[superscript -] Annihilation at LEP c.m. Energy, and More Precise Measurements on Final Particle MD at pp Collider Top c.m. Energy. The Occurrence of Substructures or Components in the Various Collisions     231
New Physics at CERN. The Weighted Superposition of Three Classes of Events (Soft, Semihard, and Hard) in pp Collisions at LHC     233
References     233
The U(1)[subscript A] Anomaly and QCD Phenomenology   G. M. Shore     235
Introduction     235
The U(1)[subscript A] Anomaly and the Topological Susceptibility     237
'U(1)[subscript A] Without Instantons'     245
Pseudoscalar Mesons     252
Topological Charge Screening and the 'Proton Spin'     265
Polarised Two-photon Physics and a Sum Rule for g[superscript [gamma subscript 1]     279
References     285
Planar Equivalence 2006   A. Armoni   M. Shifman      289
Planar Equivalence: a Refined Proof     290
The Orientifold Large-N Expansion     293
Applications for One-flavor QCD     294
Applications for Three-flavor QCD     295
Sagnotti's Model and the Gauge/String Correspondence     297
Charge Conjugation and the Validity of Planar Equivalence     297
Other Developments     298
References     299
Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Instantons and Supersymmetry   M. Bianchi   S. Kovacs   G. Rossi     303
Introduction     303
Generalities about Instantons     306
Chiral and Supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi Identities     315
Instanton Calculus     321
The Effective Action Approach     334
N = 2 SYM: Introduction     348
N = 2 SYM: Generalities     349
Seiberg-Witten Analysis     352
Checking the SW Formula by Instanton Calculations     358
Topological Twist and Non-commutative Deformation     364
(Constrained) Instantons from Open Strings     374
Instanton Effects in N = 4 SYM     385
N = 4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory     386
Instanton Calculus in N = 4 SYM      390
One-instanton in N = 4 SYM with SU(N[subscript c]) Gauge Group     394
Generalisation to Multi-instanton Sectors     405
AdS/CFT Correspondence: a Brief Overview     407
Instanton Effects in the AdS/CFT Duality     412
Conclusions     436
References     463
The Magnetic Monopoles Seventy-five Years Later   K. Konishi     471
Color Confinement     472
Difficulties with the Semiclassical "Non-Abelian Monopoles"     474
Non-Abelian Monopoles from Vortex Moduli     480
N = 2 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and Light Non-Abelian Monopoles     482
Vortices     494
The Model     500
Confinement Near Conformal Vacua     507
Quantum Chromodynamics     508
Conclusive Remarks     509
References     519
String Dualities and Symmetries
Novel Symmetries of String Theory   J. Maharana     525
Introduction     525
Hamiltonian Formalism and BRS Quantization     527
Canonical Transformations and Invariance Properties of [Sigma]     534
Symmetries of Massive String Excitations     542
Summary and Conclusions     549
References      551
Threshold Effects Beyond the Standard Model   T. R. Taylor     553
Introduction     553
Threshold Effects of Extra Dimensions     553
Superstring Threshold Corrections     556
References     559
Dualities in String Cosmology   K. A. Meissner     561
Introduction     561
Scale Factor Duality     563
O(d, d) Symmetry to the Lowest Order     564
O(d, d) Symmetry to the Next Order     567
Discussion     569
References     570
Spontaneous Breaking of Space-Time Symmetries   E. Rabinovici     573
Introduction     573
Spontaneous Breaking of Space Symmetries     574
Spontaneous Breaking of Time-Translational Invariance and of Supersymmetry     590
Spontaneous Breaking of Conformal Invariance     597
O(N) Vector Models in d = 3: Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance and the Vacuum Energy     599
References     604
String/Quantum Gravity, Black Holes and Entropy
The Information Paradox   D. Amati     609
Introduction     609
String Theories and Black Holes     610
The Role of Decoherence      612
High-energy Collisions in String Theory and Metric Back Reaction     613
Metric Back Reaction and Possible Avoidance of Black Holes     615
Conclusions and Outlook     615
References     616
Cosmological Entropy Bounds   R. Brustein     619
To Gabriele     619
Introduction     619
The Causal Entropy Bound     624
The Generalized Second Law and the Causal Entropy Bound     645
Area Entropy, Entanglement Entropy and Entropy Bounds     655
References     658
Extremal Black Holes in Supergravity   L. Andrianopoli   R. D'Auria   S. Ferrara   M. Trigiante     661
Introduction: Extremal Black Holes from Classical General Relativity to String Theory     661
Extremal Black Holes as Massive Representations of Supersymmetry     668
The General Form of the Supergravity Action in Four Dimensions and its BPS Configurations     674
Supersymmetric Black Holes: General Discussion     694
BPS and Non-BPS Attractor Mechanism: The Geodesic Potential     701
Detailed Analysis of Attractors in Extended Supergravities: BPS and Non-BPS Critical Points     713
Conclusions     723
References      724
Expectation Values and Vacuum Currents of Quantum Fields   G. A. Vilkovisky     729
Introduction     729
Lecture 1     730
Lecture 2     741
Lecture 3     752
Lecture 4     768
References     783
String Cosmology
Dilaton Cosmology and Phenomenology   M. Gasperini     787
Dilaton-dominated Inflation: the Pre-big Bang Scenario     789
The Relic Dilaton Background     812
Late-time Cosmology: Dilaton Dark Energy     826
References     842
Relic Gravitons and String Pre-big-bang Cosmology   A. Buonanno   C. Ungarelli     845
Introduction     845
Graviton Production in Cosmology     847
Gravitational-wave Background in Pre-big-bang Inflation     853
Accessibility of LIGO to Pre-big-bang Models     857
Conclusions     859
References     860
Magnetic Fields, Strings and Cosmology   M. Giovannini     863
Half a Century of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields     863
Magnetogenesis     869
Why String Cosmology?     892
Primordial or Not Primordial, This Is the Question      902
Concluding Remarks     934
References     935
Cosmological Singularities and a Conjectured Gravity/Coset Correspondence   T. Damour     941
Introduction     941
Cosmological Billiards     942
Gravity/Coset Correspondence     944
A New View of the (quantum) Fate of Space at a Cosmological Singularity     946
References     948
Brane Inflation: String Theory Viewed from the Cosmos   S.-H. H. Tye     949
Introduction     949
Brane Inflation     956
Graceful Exit     961
Production and Properties of Cosmic Superstrings     964
Evolution and Detection of Cosmic Superstrings     966
Remarks     970
References     972

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