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Elsevier Health Sciences
Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management / Edition 4

Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management / Edition 4


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First published in 1986 under the editorial direction of Dr. Henry J.M. Barnett, Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management continues to provide the dependable, current answers you need to effectively combat the increasing incidence of this disease. Dr. J.P. Mohr, together with new associate editors Philip A. Wolf, James C. Grotta, Michael A. Moskowitz, Marc Mayberg, and Rüdiger von Kummer as well as a multitude of expert contributors from around the world, offer you updated and expanded coverage of mechanisms of action of commonly used drugs, neuronal angiogenesis and stem cells, basic mechanisms of spasm and hemorrhage, prevention of stroke, genetics/predisposing risk factors, and much more, equipping you to understand the latest scientific discoveries and make effective use of the newest approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Plus, a new organization and new full-color images make diagnosis easier and more efficient, and full-text online access at allows you to rapidly search this indispensable reference from any computer.

• Gain fresh perspectives and up-to-date insights from the world’s leading authorities on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of stroke.
• Access the comprehensive, expert clinical guidance you need to recognize the clinical manifestations of stroke, use the latest laboratory and imaging studies to arrive at a diagnosis, and generate an effective medical and surgical treatment plan.

• Make efficient and accurate diagnoses with the aid of abundant full-color CT images and pathology slides.

• Stay up to date on hot topics such as mechanisms of action of commonly used drugs, neuronal angiogenesis and stem cells, basic mechanisms of spasm and hemorrhage, prevention of stroke, genetics/predisposing risk factors, and much more.
• Search the complete text online at to quickly find the answers you need, download images, and follow links to PubMed abstracts for most references.

Combat the increasing prevalence of stroke with the most comprehensive and updated multimedia resource on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of stroke from leading authority Dr. Mohr.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780443066009
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Publication date: 03/17/2004
Edition description: REV
Pages: 1648
Product dimensions: 8.90(w) x 11.10(h) x 2.70(d)

About the Author

Professor of Neurology, Chairman, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston; Director, Stroke Program, Memorial Hermann - Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX

Table of Contents

section one


Michael A. Moskowitz

 1 Vascular Biology and Atherosclerosis of Cerebral Arteries 03

Alyson A. Miller, Christopher G. Sobey

 2 The Cerebral Microvasculature and Responses to Ischemia 16

Gregory J. del Zoppo, Gerhard F. Hamann

 3 Mechanisms of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 29

Gregory J. del Zoppo, Mary A. Kalafut

 4 Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism in Human Cerebrovascular Disease 44

Allyson R. Zazulia, Joanne Markham, William J. Powers

 5 Histopathology of Cerebral Ischemia 68


 6 Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Death 75

Dimitry Ofengeim, Takahiro Miyawaki, R. Suzanne Zukin

 7 Apoptosis and Related Mechanisms in Cerebral Ischemia 107

Turgay Dalkara, Michael A. Moskowitz

 8 Molecular Pathophysiology of White Matter Anoxic-Ischemic Injury 122

Bruce R. Ransom, Mark P. Goldberg, Selva Baltan

 9 Cerebral Ischemia and Inflammation 138

Costantino Iadecola, Takato Abe, Alexander Kunz, John Hallenbeck

10 Intracellular Signaling: Mediators and Protective Responses 154

Valina L. Dawson, Ted M. Dawson

11 Enhancing Brain Reorganization and Recovery of Function after Stroke 162

Michael Chopp, Zheng Gang Zhang

12 Genetics and Vascular Biology of Brain Vascular Malformations 169

Helen Kim, Ludmila Pawlikowska, William L. Young

section two

Epidemiology and Prevention

Philip A. Wolf

13 Distribution of Stroke: Heterogeneity by Age, Race, and Sex 189

Virginia J. Howard, George Howard

14 Epidemiology of Stroke 198

Philip A. Wolf, William B. Kannel

15 Prognosis after Stroke 219

TATJANA Rundek, Ralph L. Sacco

16 Primary Prevention of Stroke 242

Larry B. Goldstein, Ralph L. Sacco

17 Vascular Dementia and Vascular Cognitive Decline 252

Sudha Seshadri

18 Stroke Genetics 268

James F. Meschia, Daniel Woo

19 The Global Burden of Stroke 279

Kathleen Strong, Colin Mathers

section three

Clinical Manifestations

J.P. Mohr

20 Classification of Ischemic Stroke 293

Danilo Toni, Ralph L. Sacco, Michael Brainin, J.P. Mohr

21 Clinical Scales to Assess Patients with Stroke 307

Harold P. Adams, Jr.

22 Carotid Artery Disease 334

J.P. Mohr, Henning Mast

23 Anterior Cerebral Artery Disease 362

John C.M. Brust, Angel Chamorro

24 Middle Cerebral Artery Disease 384

J.P. Mohr, Ronald M. Lazar, Randolph S. Marshall

25 Posterior Cerebral Artery Disease 425

J.P. Mohr, Jeffrey R. Binder

26 Vertebrobasilar Disease 446

J.P. Mohr, Louis R. Caplan

27 Microangiopathies (Lacunes) 485

J.L. Martí-Vilalta, Adrià Arboix, J.P. Mohr

28 Cerebral Venous Thrombosis 516

José M. Ferro, Patrícia Canhão

29 Intracerebral Hemorrhage 531

Carlos S. Kase, Steven M. Greenberg, J.P. Mohr, Louis R. Caplan

30 Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 589

Eric M. Bershad, José I. Suarez

31 Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Anomalies 616

Christian Stapf, J.P. Mohr, Andreas Hartmann, Henning Mast, Alexander Khaw, Jae H. Choi, John Pile-Spellman

32 Spinal Cord Ischemia 643

Joshua Z. Willey, Henry J.M. Barnett, J.P. Mohr

section four

Specific Medical Diseases and Stroke

J.P. Mohr

33 Arterial Dissections and Fibromuscular Dysplasia 661

Richard M. Zweifler, Gerald Silverboard

34 Collagen Vascular and Infectious Diseases 687

Sachin Agarwal, J.P. Mohr, Mitchell S.V. Elkind

35 Moyamoya Disease 703

Masahiro Yasaka, Junichi Masuda, Jun Ogata, Takenori Yamaguchi

36 Migraine and Stroke 720

Hans C. Diener, Tobias Kurth

37 Hypertensive Encephalopathy 734

Catherine Lamy, Jean-Louis Mas

38 Atherosclerotic Disease of the Proximal Aorta 741

Marco R. Di Tullio, Shunichi Homma

39 CADASIL: Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy 758

Hugues Chabriat, Anne Joutel, Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve, Marie-Germaine Bousser

40 Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes 765

Aneesh B. Singhal, Anne Ducros

41 Coagulation Abnormalities in Stroke 772

Bruce M. Coull, Kendra Drake

42 Stroke and Substance Abuse 790

John C.M. Brust

43 Cardiac Diseases 814

David M. Greer, Shunichi Homma, Karen L. Furie

section five

Diagnostic Studies

Rüdiger von Kummer

44 Ultrasonography 831

Stephen Meairs, Michael Hennerici, J.P. Mohr

45 Computed Tomography–Based Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease 870

Imanuel Dzialowski, Volker Puetz, Rüdiger von Kummer

46 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebrovascular Diseases 882

Steven Warach, Alison E. Baird, Krishna A. Dani, Max Wintermark, Chelsea S. Kidwell

47 Cerebral Angiography 910

Ronald J. Sattenberg, Jeffrey L. Saver, Y. Pierre Gobin, David S. Liebeskind

section six


Part A: Medical Therapy

James C. Grotta

48 Prehospital and Emergency Department Care of the Patient with Acute Stroke 929

Opeolu Adeoye, Arthur Pancioli

49 Intravenous Thrombolysis 945

Wendy Brown, Lama Al-Khoury, Gilda Tafreshi, Patrick D. Lyden

50 Antithrombotic Therapy for Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke 971

Harold P. Adams, Jr., Patricia H. Davis

51 General Stroke Management and Stroke Units 992

Markku Kaste, Risto O. Roine

52 Critical Care of the Patient with Acute Stroke 1008

Jennifer Diedler, Marek Sykora, Werner Hacke

53 Pharmacologic Modification of Acute Cerebral Ischemia 1049

Nicole R. Gonzales, James C. Grotta

54 Treatment of "Other" Stroke Etiologies 1084

Scott E. Kasner, Brett L. Cucchiara

55 Medical Therapy of Intracerebral and Intraventricular Hemorrhage 1106

Lewis B. Morgenstern, Darin B. Zahuranec

56 Rehabilitation and Recovery of the Patient with Stroke 1116

Bruce H. Dobkin

57 Enhancing Stroke Recovery with Cellular Therapies 1134

Sean I. Savitz

58 Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention of Stroke 1147

Mar Castellanos, Babette B. Weksler, Oscar R. Benavente

59 Secondary Prevention of Cardioembolic Stroke 1173

Maria I. Aguilar, Oscar R. Benavente

60 Conduct of Stroke-Related Clinical Trials 1192

Barbara C. Tilley, Yuko Y. Palesch

Part B: Interventional Therapy

Rüdiger von Kummer

61 Interventional Neuroradiologic Therapy of Atherosclerotic Disease and Vascular Malformations 1204

J Mocco, Stanley H. Kim, Bernard R. Bendok, Alan S. Boulos, L. Nelson Hopkins, Elad I. Levy

62 Intraarterial Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke 1227

Anthony J. Furlan, Jitendra Sharma, Randall Higashida

63 Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms 1241

Ajay K. Wakhloo, Matthew J. Gounis, Michael J. De Leo III

64 Interventional Therapy of Brain and Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations 1255

Timo Krings, Sasikhan Geibprasert, Karel ter Brugge

65 Dural Arteriovenous Malformations 1280

J. Paul Elliott, Daniel Huddle, Issam A. Awad

Part C: Surgical Therapy

Marc R. Mayberg

66 Genetics of Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations 1292

Ynte M. Ruigrok, CATHARINA  J.M. Klijn

67 Anterior Circulation Aneurysms 1301

Brian V. Nahed, Christopher S. Ogilvy

68 Surgical Management of Posterior Circulation Aneurysms 1322

Mark J. Dannenbaum, Rose Du, Arthur L. Day

69 Surgery for Intracerebral Hemorrhage 1336

Alexander David Mendelow, BARBARA A. GREGSON

70 Intraventricular Hemorrhage 1349

J. Max Findlay

71 Surgical Decision Making, Techniques, and Periprocedural Care of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations 1358

Robert M. Starke, Ricardo J. Komotar, E. Sander Connolly

72 Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations 1366

Shervin R. Dashti, Louis J. Kim, Udaya K. Kakarla, Min S. Park, Michael F. Stiefel, Robert F. Spetzler

73 Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformations 1374

William A. Friedman, Frank J. Bova

74 Cerebral Cavernous Malformations and Venous Anomalies: Diagnosis, Natural History, and Clinical Management 1388

Christopher S. Eddleman, H. Hunt Batjer, Issam A. Awad

75 Indications for Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with Symptomatic Stenosis 1398

Jonathan L. Brisman, Marc R. Mayberg

76 Surgical Management of Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis 1403

Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Roberto C. Heros, Jacques J. Morcos

77 Extracranial to Intracranial Bypass for Cerebral Ischemia 1417

David W. Newell, Marcelo D. Vilela

78 Cerebral Infarction: Surgical Treatment 1426

Eric Jüttler, Werner Hacke

79 Cerebellar Infarction and Hemorrhage 1440

Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Kazuhiro Hongo, Shigeaki Kobayashi

Index 1447

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