Structural Geology: Principles, Concepts, and Problems

Structural Geology: Principles, Concepts, and Problems

by Robert D Hatcher Jr, Christopher M Bailey

Hardcover(3rd ed.)

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Overview

Now thoroughly revised in its third edition, Structural Geology: Principles, Concepts, and Problems incorporates a balanced and broad state-of the-science presentation that combines extensive full-color illustrations with clear, lively writing. The book's breadth enables instructors to cover a wide array of current topics, including stress in the earth, fracking, seismic risk of tectonic structures, the earthquake cycle, and man-made earthquakes.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780190660376
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 06/06/2019
Edition description: 3rd ed.
Pages: 656
Product dimensions: 8.20(w) x 11.20(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Robert D. Hatcher, Jr., is Distinguished Scientist and Professor of Structural Geology and Tectonics Emeritus at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Christopher M. Bailey is Professor of Geology at the College of William & Mary.

Table of Contents

PART 1: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1: Introduction
Plate Tectonics
Equilibrium
Geologic Cycles

Chapter 2: Fundamental Concepts and Nontectonic Structures
Fundamental Concepts
Primary Sedimentary Structures
Sedimentary Facies
Unconformities
Primary Igneous Structures
Gravity-Related Features
ESSAY: Deciphering a Major Structure in the Southern Highlands of Scotland
Impact Structures

Chapter 3: Geochronology in Structural Geology
Geochronology
Stable Isotopes
ESSAY: Rock Bodies That Appear to Be the Same in the Field May Not Turn Out to Be When Their Ages Are Determined

Chapter 4: Geophysical Techniques and Earth Structure
Seismic Reflection
Seismic Refraction
Earthquakes And Seismic Waves
Potential Field Methods
Gravity
Electrical Methods
Borehole Geophysics
ESSAY: Geophysical Data and the Structure of Mountain Chains

PART 2: MECHANICS: HOW ROCKS DEFORM

Chapter 5: Stress
Definitions
Stress on a Plane
Mohr Construction
Amontons' Law and the Coulomb-Mohr Hypothesis
Stress Ellipsoid
Stress at a Point
Measuring Present-Day Stress in the Earth
ESSAY: The Earthquake Cycle

Chapter 6: Strain and Strain Measurement
Definitions
Measures of Strain
Strain Ellipse and Ellipsoid
Simple, General, and Pure Shear
ESSAY: Daubrée and Mead Experiment
Progressive Deformation, Strain Symmetry, and Strain Path
Mohr Circle for Strain
Tensor Operations for Strain
Measuring Strain in Rocks
Strain Measurement Techniques
From Two to Three Dimensions
The Utility of Strain Analysis
Concluding Thoughts
ESSAY: Finite Strain from Deformed Pebbles

Chapter 7: Mechanical Behavior of Rock Materials
Definitions
Elastic (Hookean) Behavior
Permanent Deformation-Ductility
Controlling Factors
Behavior of Crustal Rocks
ESSAY: Jelly Sandwiches, Crème Brûlée, and the Mechanical Behavior of the Lithosphere
Strain Partitioning

Chapter 8: Microstructures and Deformation Mechanisms
Lattice Defects and Dislocations
Deformation Mechanisms
Geochemical Processes
Microstructures
Crystallographic Preferred Orientations
Laboratory Models of Deformation Processes
Final Thoughts
ESSAY: Fault Rocks-A Fourth Class of Rocks

PART 3: FRACTURES AND FAULTS

Chapter 9: Joints and Shear Fractures
ESSAY: Fracking
Fracture Analysis
Fracture Mechanics: Griffith Theory
Joints and Fracture Mechanics
Fracture Surface Morphology
Joints In Plutons
Nontectonic And Quasitectonic Fractures
ESSAY: Mesozoic Fracturing of Eastern North American Crust-Product of Extension or Shear?

Chapter 10: Faults and Shear Zones
Fault Anatomy
Anderson's Classification
Recognizing Faults
ESSAY: Seismic Risk Associated with Tectonic Structures
Shear Zones
Shear-Sense Indicators
Composite Foliations
Strain In Ductile Shear Zones
Brittle Shear Zones
ESSAY: Existence and Displacement Sense of Large Faults

Chapter 11: Fault Mechanics
Anderson's Mechanics and Fundamental Assumptions
Anderson's Fault Types
Role of Fluids
Frictional Sliding Mechanisms
Movement Mechanisms
Shear (Frictional) Heating In Fault Zones
Reality of Fault Mechanics
ESSAY: Artificial Earthquakes

Chapter 12: Thrust Faults
Nature of Thrust Faults
Detachment Within a Sedimentary Sequence
Propagation and Termination of Thrusts
Features Produced by Erosion
ESSAY: Debate About Thrust Faults
Crystalline Thrusts
ESSAY: Gravity Model Foldbelt
Cross-Section Construction and the Room Problem
Thrust Mechanics
Mechanics of Crystalline Thrusts

Chapter 13: Strike-Slip Faults
Properties and Geometry
Tectonic Setting of Strike-Slip Faulting
Geometry Related to Other Fault Types
Terminations of Strike-Slip Faults
Releasing and Restraining Bends
Transtension And Transpression
Transforms
Mechanics of Strike-Slip Faulting
ESSAY: Rigid Indenters and Escape Tectonics

Chapter 14: Normal Faults
Properties and Geometry
Environments and Mechanics
ESSAY: Inverted Faults and Tectonic Inheritance

PART 4: FOLDS AND FOLDING

Chapter 15: Anatomy of Folds
Descriptive Anatomy of Folds
ESSAY: Gravity-Driven Soft Sediment Folds and Faults
Folds at Map and Cross Section Scale
Fold Classifications
ESSAY: Folds and the Development of the Petroleum Industry

Chapter 16: Fold Mechanics
Fold Mechanisms and Accompanying Phenomena
Deformation Mechanisms and Strain
Discussion
ESSAY: A Tale of Two Folds: Deciphering the Fold Mechanisms of Two Small Folds

Chapter 17: Complex Folds
Occurrence and Recognition
Superposed Folds and Fold Interference Patterns
Recognition of Multiple Fold Phases
Noncylindrical And Sheath Folds
Formation of Complex Folds
Mechanical Implications of Complex Folding
ESSAY: The Value of Rosetta Stones

PART 5: FABRICS AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Chapter 18: Cleavage and Foliations
Definitions
Cleavage-Bedding Relationships
Cleavage Refraction
Mechanics of Slaty Cleavage Formation
ESSAY: Early Ideas on the Origin of Slaty Cleavage
Crenulation Cleavage
Cleavage Fans and Transecting Cleavages
Transposition
ESSAY: Cleavage Formation and the Identification of Elephants

Chapter 19: Linear Structures
Definitions
Lineations as Flow and Transport Indicators
Folds and Lineations
Folded Lineations
Interpretation of Linear Structures
ESSAY: Pitfalls in Interpreting Linear Structures

Chapter 20: Structural Geology of Plutons
The Nature of Magma
Distinguishing Magmatic from Solid-State Tectonic Structures
The Enigma of Tabular Pluton Emplacement
Emplacement of Stocks and Batholiths
ESSAY: A Tale of Two Plutons

Chapter 21: Structural Analysis
Cross-Section Analysis
Deformation Plan in an Orogen
Structural Analysis Procedures
Structural Analysis in Foreland Fold-Thrust Belts (FFTBs)
Structural Analysis of Multiply Deformed Rocks in the Cores Of Orogens
ESSAY: Historical Development of Structural Analysis Methods in Metamorphic Rocks
Structural Analysis of Multiply Deformed and Transposed Rocks
ESSAY: Structural Analysis at Woodall Shoals
Analysis of Salt Structures
Structural Analysis in Continental Interiors
Structural Analysis in Seismically Active Regions-Insight into Paleoseismology

PART 6: APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Structural Measurements and Observations
Directional Reference Frame and Location
Orientation Of Planes: Strike and Dip
Orientation of Lines: Trend and Plunge; Rake
Recording Data

Appendix 2: Stereographic Projections and Fabric Diagrams
How To Begin Plotting Manually
Plotting Planar Structures
Plotting Linear Structures
Locating Fold Axes Using Equal-Area Plots: Beta And Pi Diagrams
Contouring Data

Appendix 3: Structural Cross Sections-Methods for Cross-Section Construction
Introduction
Rules of Cross-Section Construction
Editorial Tips for Constructing Cross Sections
Taking Cross Sections to the Next Level-Cross-Section Balancing

Appendix 4: Woodall Shoals Fabric Data

Glossary
References Cited
Index

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