Subcellular Biochemistry: Volume 8

Subcellular Biochemistry: Volume 8

by Donald B. Roodyn (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981)

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In this volume of SUBCELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY we cover a wide range of topics of considerable biological importance and have continued in our policy of letting authors, rather than editors, decide the "natural" length of their articles. Thus, we have some short but nevertheless significant contributions, as well as more massive chapters. We start with a detailed account by 1. Oelze of the composition and development of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus. A number of photosynthetic bacteria are discussed, with particular emphasis on the well-studied Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas sphae­ roides. The reader will no doubt be struck by the great wealth of information now available on the molecular organization of the photosynthetic and respi­ ratory systems in these organisms. Equally important is our improved under­ standing of the biosynthesis and assembly of these systems. It is now generally accepted that photosynthetic bacteria are excellent model systems for the study of bioenergetic processes. It may well be that they will become equally popular as models for the study of membrane biogenesis, and it is to be hoped that Oelze's erudite and comprehensive treatment of the subject will help in this regard.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461579533
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 12/12/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981
Pages: 408
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Composition and Development of the Bacterial Photosynthetic Apparatus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structure and Function of Membranes.- 2.1. Chemical Composition of Isolated Membranes.- 2.2. Physical Properties of Isolated Membranes.- 2.3. The Photosynthetic Apparatus.- 2.4. The Respiratory Electron Transport System.- 2.5. Energy-Requiring Reactions Linked to Electron Transport.- 2.6. Reconstitution of Light-Dependent Reactions in Photosynthetically Incompetent Membranes.- 3. Development of Membranes and Its Regulation.- 3.1. Bacteriochlorophyll Synthesis.- 3.2. Differentiation of the Cellular Membrane System.- 4. Comparative Aspects.- 5. References.- 2 The Cascade of Membrane Events during Development of Dictyostelium discoideum.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Dictyostelium Development.- 1.2. Processes Mediated by the Plasma Membrane.- 2. General Composition and Structure of the Membrane.- 2.1. Isolation Techniques.- 2.2. Changes in the Phenotype of the Membrane during Development.- 3. Functions of the Plasma Membrane during Development.- 3.1. Chemotaxis.- 3.2. Aggregation.- 3.3. Cell-Cell Interaction.- 4. Summary.- 5. References.- 3 Tubulin and the Microtubule System in Cellular Growth and Development.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Occurrence and Function of Microtubules.- 1.2. Structure of Microtubules.- 2. Biochemical Characterization of Microtubule Proteins.- 2.1. Purification of Tubulin.- 2.2. Heterogeneity in Tubulin.- 2.3. Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Nucleotide in Microtubules.- 2.4. Enzyme Activities Associated with Microtubule Proteins.- 2.5. Proteins Associated with Microtubules.- 2.6. Microheterogeneity in Tubulin.- 3. Microtubule Assembly.- 3.1. Conditions of Assembly.- 3.2. Role of Nucleotides in Assembly.- 3.3. Accessory Factors for Assembly.- 3.4. Mechanism of Assembly in Vitro.- 3.5. Regulation of Microtubule Assembly.- 4. Antimicrotubular Agents.- 4.1. Colchicine and Its Structural Analogs.- 4.2. Podophyllotoxin.- 4.3. Vinblastine and Vincristine.- 4.4. Griseofulvin.- 4.5. Other Microtubule Poisons.- 4.6. The Mechanism of Substoichiometric Antimitotic Drug Poisoning.- 5. Microtubules in Growth and Development.- 5.1. Relation of Microtubules to Morphogenesis and Maturation of Disk-Shaped Blood Cells.- 5.2. Relation of Microtubules to Morphogenesis in Other Cells.- 5.3. Relation of Microtubules to Other Cell Organelles and Structures.- 5.4. Tubulin-Microtubule Association with Membrane Structures in Relation to Cell Transformation.- 5.5. Tubulin-Microtubule Association with Plant Cell Membrane.- 5.6. Biosynthesis of Tubulin.- 5.7. Posttranslational Modification.- 5.8. Tubulin mRNA in Developing Systems.- 6. Cloning of the Tubulin Gene.- 7. Conclusion.- 8. References.- 4 Nucleus and Cytoplasm: Supply and Demand. What Underlies the Flow of Genetic Information?.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Interdependence and Complementarity of Central and Peripheral Mechanisms in the Control of Gene Expression.- 2.1. Regulation of Protein Synthesis: Control at the Transcriptional Level Is Necessary.- 2.2. Regulation of Protein Synthesis: Transcription Alone Is Not Sufficient.- 3. Some Hypotheses on Posttranscriptional Regulation.- 3.1. “Cascade Regulation” Model.- 3.2. “Ticketing” Model.- 3.3. Model Involving Cytoplasmic Inhibitors of mRNA Function.- 3.4. Autogenous Regulation of Gene Expression.- 3.5. Attenuation as a Mechanism for Differential Gene Activity.- 3.6. Hypothesis Proposing a Regulatory Role for Repetitive Sequences.- 3.7. Hypothesis of “Splicer” RNAs.- 4. The Cytoplasm as a Source of Genome-Reprogramming Activity.- 5. A Model for Cytoplasm-Governed Gene Regulation.- 5.1. Qualitative Redundancy of Transcription as a Consequence of Structural Organization of the Genome.- 5.2. Selective RNA Transport as a Mechanism for Controlling Transcription.- 6. Regulation of Gene Expression at the Level of Nucleus-to- Cytoplasm Transport of RNA.- 6.1. Rate of RNA Transport.- 6.2. Comparison of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic RNAs in Various Cell Types.- 6.3. Transport of Some Specific Transcripts.- 6.4. “Luxury” Functions, “Housekeeping” Functions, and Modulation of mRNA Abundance in the Cytoplasm.- 6.5. Transport-Controlling Factors of the Cytosol.- 7. Metabolic Heterogeneity of Nuclear RNA.- 8. Structural Organization of Intranuclear RNA Transport.- 9. Conclusion.- 10. References.- 5 Subcellular Mechanisms Involving Vitamin D.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Subcellular Aspects of Functional Vitamin D Metabolism.- 2.1. Vitamin D-25-Hydroxylase.- 2.2. 25-OH-D-1 -Hydroxylase.- 3. Molecular Mechanism of Action of l,25-(OH)2D3.- 4. Summary.- 5. References.- 6 Macromolecular Organization of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Distribution of Acetylcholine Receptors.- 2.1. Innervated Skeletal Muscle and Electroplaques.- 2.2. Denervated Skeletal Muscle (Extrajunctional Ach Receptors).- 2.3. Biosynthesis of Extrajunctional Ach Receptors.- 3. Composition of Acetylcholine Receptors.- 4. Structure of Acetylcholine Receptors.- 5. Morphological Correlates of Acetylcholine Receptors.- 6. Differences between Junctional and Extrajunctional Acetylcholine Receptors.- 7. Significance of Extrajunctional Acetylcholine Receptor Aggregates.- 8. Conclusion.- 9. References.- 7 Immunological Studies of Tissue Proteinases.- 1 Introduction.- 2. Cathepsin D.- 2.1. Antiserum Production.- 2.2. Inhibition by Antisera.- 2.3. Tissue Localization: Intracellular and Extracellular.- 2.4. The Assay of Cathepsin D.- 2.5. The Structure of Cathepsin D.- 2.6. The Biosynthesis of Cathepsin D.- 3. Cathepsin B and Related Thiol Proteinases.- 4. Collagenase.- 5. Elastase and Cathepsin G.- 6. Serine Proteinases of Skin and Muscle.- 7. Acrosin.- 8. Plasminogen Activators.- 9. Immunological Methods for the Study of Proteinases.- 9.1 Purification of Proteinases.- 9.2. Preparation of Antisera.- 9.3. Preparation of Antibodies from Antisera.- 9.4. Preparation of Antibodies Using Hybridomas.- 9.5. Immunoprecipitation in Gels and Solution.- 9.6. Immunoinhibition.- 9.7. Nonprecipitating Antibodies and Immunoassay.- 9.8. Immunolocalization.- 10. Conclusions.- 11. References.- 8 Amino Acids from the Moon: Notes on Meteorites.- 1. Introduction.- 2. History.- 2.1. Analyses of Lunar Samples and Meteorites.- 2.2. Preparation of Samples.- 2.3. Method of Analysis.- 2.4. Contamination in Lunar Fines.- 2.5. Sources of Amino Acids from the Moon and Meteorites.- 2.6. The Chemical Nature of Amino Acid Precursors.- 3. Summary and Prospect.- 4. References.- Recent Books in Cell Biochemistry and Biology.- 1. Recognition Systems.- 2. Techniques.- 3. Cell Biology and Organelles.- 4. Evolution of Cellular Systems.

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