Substrate and Adstrate: The Origins of Spatial Semantics in West African Pidgincreoles

Substrate and Adstrate: The Origins of Spatial Semantics in West African Pidgincreoles

by Micah Corum

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Overview

This volume provides a large-scale, in-depth analysis of locative structures in Nigerian Pidgin and Ghanaian Pidgin English and compares those structures to locatives in their lexifier, substrate, and adstrate languages. The work draws on new research methods for investigating substrate and adstrate influence in semantics and creole genesis.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781614516200
Publisher: De Gruyter
Publication date: 03/30/2015
Series: Language Contact and Bilingualism [LCB] Series , #10
Pages: 292
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.06(h) x 0.03(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Micah Corum, Hamburg University, Germany.

Table of Contents

List of tables xi

List of figures xii

Acknowledgments xiii

Abbreviations xiv

Introduction 1

Definitions and theoretical preliminaries 1

Contact languages in pidgincreole contexts 2

Adstrate, substrate, lexifier 6

Advances in the substrate camp 8

Treatment of adstrates 13

Linguistic areas, convergence, and (pidgin)creoles 16

Congruence in a typological matrix and convergence in location marking 18

Outline and content of the case studies 21

Locative structures and constructional pairings 22

Chapter 1 Spatial semantics in West African pidginCreoles 25

1 Introduction 25

1.1 A general overview of Krio, Nigerian Pidgin, and Ghanaian Pidgin English 25

1.1.1 Krio 26

1.1.1.1 Locative structures in Krio 29

1.1.2 Nigerian Pidgin 29

1.1.2.1 Locative structures in Nigerian Pidgin 30

1.1.3 Ghanaian Pidgin English 31

1.1.3.1 Locative structures in Ghanaian Pidgin English 32

1.1.3.2 Ghanaian Student Pidgin 32

1.2 Remarks on the diachrony of the locative copula de 34

1.3 Methodologies for the study of spatial semantics in West African pidgincreoles 36

Chapter 2 Locative predication in Guinea Coast languages: a survey of features in the West African (Pidgin)Creoles' extended typological matrix 41

2 Introduction 41

2.1 Locative predication 42

2.1.1 Spatial grams: or spatial-relational items, adpositions, and affixes 42

2.1.2 A general impression of spatial grams in Niger-Congo languages 43

2.1.3 Multiple meaning-function constructions 46

2.2 Upper Guinea Coast languages and the provenance of locative predication in West African (pidgin)creoles 47

2.2.1 Atlantic languages of the Guinea Coast and the immediate hinterland 49

2.2.1.1 Wolof, Serer, Fula (Pulaar) 50

2.2.1.2 The BAK group: Dyola, Pepel-Mandyak, Balanta 52

2.2.1.3 Banyun, Biafada, Bidyogo 54

2.2.1.4 The Sapi group of Mel languages: Landuma, Baga, Temne, Gola, Bullom 55

2.2.2 Mande languages of the Guinea Coast and the immediate hinterland 61

2.2.2.1 Manding, Vai, Susu 61

2.2.2.2 Mende and Liberian Kpelle 64

2.2.3 Kru languages of the Guinea Coast and the immediate hinterland 65

2.2.3.1 Klao and Grebo 65

2.2.4 Dominant features of locative predication in languages of the Upper Guinea Coast 67

2.3 Languages of the Lower Guinea Coast and the hinterland: Benue-Kwa and Ijoid 68

2.3.1 The Kwa group 69

2.3.1.1 Akan dialect cluster, Awutu, Nzema 69

2.3.1.2 Ga and Adangme 73

2.3.1.3 Ewe 74

2.3.2 The Benue-Congo group 75

2.3.2.1 Yoruboid 75

2.3.2.2 Edoid 76

2.3.2.3 Igboid 78

2.3.2.4 Cross River 79

2.3.2.5 Bantoid 80

2.3.3 The Ijoid group 80

2.3.4 Dominant features of locative predication in languages of the Lower Guinea Coast 81

2.4 West African pidgincreoles and their Creole kin 83

2.4.1 Lingua de Preto, a linguistic foundation for West African Portuguese-lexifier Creoles - 83

2.4.1.1 Early Portuguese-lexifier pidgin in West Africa 84

2.4.2 Guinea-Bissau Creole and Cape Verdean Creole 85

2.4.3 Early West African English-lexifier Creole, or Guinea Coast Creole English 85

2.4.4 Afro-Caribbean 87

2.4.5 Jamaican Maroon Spirit Language 88

2.4.6 Krio 90

2.4.7 Early West African English-lexifier pidgin and present-day pidgincreoles 91

2.4.8 Summary 93

Chapter 3 Topological spatial relations in Ghanaian Student Pidgin: an exercise in semantic typology in a West African pidgincreole context 97

3 Introduction 97

3.1 Tools to study the BLC 97

3.2 Specialized terminology in the literature on spatial language 99

3.3 Schematizing the TRPS 101

3.4 Research in semantic typology and what it means for pidgin and Creole studies 103

3.4.1 Acquisition of spatial semantics 104

3.4.2 Orthodox assumptions about spatial language 106

3.4.3 BLC hierarchy 108

3.4.4 Typology of locative predication 110

3.4.5 Data collection and research questions 112

3.5 Spatial grams in Ghanaian Student Pidgin 113

3.5.1 Research question 1: Which spatial grams are used to encode search domain information in Ghanaian Student Pidgin? 114

3.5.2 Observations on the possessive character of nominal-derived spatial grams 116

3.5.3 Im body 117

3.5.4 Prenominal spatial grams in Ghanaian Student Pidgin 119

3.6 The BLC in Ghanaian Student Pidgin 120

3.6.1 Research question 2: Which linguistic sources have the greatest influence on the expression of locative predication in Ghanaian Student Pidgin? 123

3.6.1.1 Situation I: Piercing 124

3.6.1.2 Situation II: Firm attachment 125

3.6.1.3 Situation III: Negative space 127

3.6.1.4 Situation IV: Part-whole 128

3.6.1.5 Situation V: Clothing and adornment 130

3.6.1.6 Situation VI: Movable objects 130

3.6.2 Extensional range of im body and (im) top in Ghanaian Student Pidgin 132

3.6.2.1 Im body and corresponding spatial grams in Twi and English 134

3.6.2.2 (Im) top and corresponding spatial grams in Twi and English 135

3.6.3 Variation in locative predication in Ghanaian Student Pidgin 136

3.6.3.1 Adornment scenes 136

3.6.3.2 Part-whole scenes 137

3.6.3.3 Attachment scenes 138

3.6.3.4 Piercing scenes 138

3.7 Uses of the general spatial gram for in Ghanaian Student Pidgin 140

3.7.1 Research question 3: What motivates or constrains the use of for in locative descriptions in Ghanaian Student Pidgin? 141

3.7.2 Distribution of for in the TRPS data 141

3.8 Summary 144

Chapter 4 Meanings and functions of for in Nigerian Pidgin and Ghanaian Pidgin English 147

4 Introduction 147

4.1 The multiple meaning-function construction in West African pidgincreoles 148

4.2 Cognitive semantics for creolistics 151

4.2.1 Linguistic categorization 151

4.2.2 Image schemas 153

4.2.3 Summary 154

4.3 Spatial image schemas and for 155

4.3.1 MMFCs and Benue-Kwa and Ijoid languages 157

4.4 Scalar: SOURCE-PATH-GOAL and for 160

4.5 Unity-multiplicity: LINK, MERGING, PART-WHOLE, and for 162

4.5.1 Instrumental 162

4.5.2 Comitative 163

4.6 Different uses of for in Nigerian Pidgin and Ghanaian Pidgin English: a focus on de for 164

4.6.1 Deconstructing de/or in written and spoken Nigerian Pidgin 165

4.6.2 Methodology 166

4.6.3 Findings in the spoken and written Nigerian Pidgin data 166

4.6.4 De for in the description of topological spatial relations in Nigerian Pidgin 169

4.6.5 Findings in the TRPS Nigerian Pidgin data 170

4.6.6 Constructions similar to de for in English-lexifier Creoles 171

Chapter 5 Sources of locative for in Nigerian Pidgin and Ghanaian Pidgin English 173

5 Introduction 173

5.1 On for and similar constructions in Atlantic Creoles 173

5.2 The Portuguese-lexifier Creole component 176

5.2.1 Guinea Coast contributions to the general spatial gram na 179

5.3 The Guinea Coast component: general spatial gram as areal feature 180

5.3.1 Upper Guinea languages 180

5.3.2 Lower Guinea languages 183

5.4 Where did for come from? 186

5.4.1 The European component 187

5.4.2 Sodetes de cohabitation and the Gold Coast entrepot Eimina 190

5.5 Akan locatives in the emergence of for 193

5.5.1 Locative wj in the Akan dialect cluster 194

5.6 Summary 199

Chapter 6 Concluding remarks 201

6 Overview 201

6.1 Features of locative predication acquired from Guinea Coast languages 202

6.1.1 A note on de and possessive constructions in Akan 203

6.2 Semantic typology and the study of West African pidgincreoles 204

6.2.1 Issues with the stimulus; answers from the pidgincreole data 205

6.2.2 Future exercises in semantic typology in the (pidgin) Creole context 207

6.3 Cognitive semantics meets Creole linguistics 209

6.3.1 A corpus linguistic study of de for 209

6.4 Arenas of language contact and the actors who shape contact languages 210

6.5 Conclusion 214

6.5.1 Domestic origins of spatial semantics in West African pidgincreoles 215

References 219

Appendix 1 247

Appendix 2 249

Appendix 3 251

Appendix 4 267

Index 275

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