Biblicists have long been aware that some compositions in the Bible cite and allude to other compositions. At times these practices are obvious; often, however, they are not. Essays in this volume focus on subtle, not-so-obvious, unrecognized cases of citation and allusion as well as on unrecognized 'translations' from other languages and references to motifs in the plastic arts. Individual authors address unapparent cases and the methodological considerations on which their status as 'genuine' can be established. The essays in this volume are significant because of the methodological considerations and cautions that they describe and the varied texts that they analyze. Biblicists drawing on insights from this book will be able to provide thicker descriptions of Israelite literature and literacy and to construct relative chronologies of biblical compositions with greater accuracy than has been possible until now.
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About the Author
Ziony Zevit is Distinguished Professor of Biblical Literature and Northwest Semitic Languages and Literatures at the American Jewish University. He is recognized for his publications in Hebrew language and linguistics and Israelite religion.
Table of ContentsIntroduction 1. Echoes of Texts Past Ziony Zevit Clarifying Matters of Theory and Method 2. Identifying Literary Allusions: Theory and the Criterion of Shared Language Joseph Ryan Kelly, Tempe Preparatory Academy 3. Method in Determining the Dependence of Biblical on Non-Biblical Texts David M. Carr, Union Theological Seminary in New York Multi-Lingual Scribes and their Archives 4. Subtle Citation, Allusion, and Translation: Evidence in Hittite Texts and Some Biblical Implications Ada Taggar-Cohen, Doshisha University Inner Biblical Allusions and Citations 5. Identifying Torah Sources in the Historical Psalms Marc Z. Brettler, Brandeis University 6. Identifying Subtle Allusions: The Promise of Narrative Tracking Jeffery M. Leonard, Samford University 7. Literary Allusions and Assumptions about Textual Familiarity Joel S. Baden, Yale University 8. Isaiah 60-62 in Intertextual Perspective Marvin A. Sweeney, Claremont School of Theology Extra Biblical Allusions, Citations, and Translations 9. The Book of Job and Mesopotamian Literature: How Many Degrees of Separation? Edward L. Greenstein, Bar-Ilan University 10. Method in the Study of Textual Source Dependence: The Covenant Code David P. Wright, Brandeis University 11. To Refer or Not to Refer: That is the Question Peter Machinist, Harvard University 12. Gauging Egyptian Influences on Biblical Literature Michael V. Fox, University of Wisconsin-Madison Afterword 13. A Future for Back-referencing Ziony Zevit