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Superbases for Organic Synthesis: Guanidines, Amidines, Phosphazenes and Related Organocatalysts / Edition 1

Superbases for Organic Synthesis: Guanidines, Amidines, Phosphazenes and Related Organocatalysts / Edition 1

by Tsutomu Ishikawa, Ishikawa


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Superbases for Organic Synthesis: Guanidines, Amidines, Phosphazenes and Related Organocatalysts / Edition 1

Guanidines, amidines and phosphazenes have been attractingattention in organic synthesis due to their potential functionalityresulting from their extremely strong basicity. They are alsopromising catalysts because of their potential for easy molecularmodification, possible recyclability, and reduced or zero toxicity.Importantly, these molecules can be derived as natural products– valuable as scientists move towards “sustainablechemistry”, where reagents and catalysts are derived frombiomaterial sources.

Superbases for Organic Synthesis is an essential guide tothese important molecules for preparative organic synthesis. Topicscovered include the following aspects:

  • an introduction to organosuperbases
  • physicochemical properties of organic superbases
  • amidines and guanidines in organic synthesis
  • phosphazene: preparation, reaction and catalytic role
  • polymer-supported organosuperbases
  • application of organosuperbases to total synthesis
  • related organocatalysts: proton sponges and ureaderivatives
  • amidines and guanidines in natural products and medicines

Superbases for Organic Synthesis is a comprehensive,authoritative and up-to-date guide to these important reagents fororganic chemists, drug discovery researchers and those interestedin the chemistry of natural products.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470518007
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 03/10/2009
Pages: 336
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.80(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Professor Tsutomu Ishikawa, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Japan
Professor Ishikawa leads a laboratory of researchers at Chiba University in the fields of drug-oriented organic chemistry, natural product chemistry, guanidine-based organic reactions, synthetic studies on aziridines, and the preparation of new polymer-supported reagents. He has published 30 papers, including "Guanidines in Organic Synthesis" - one of the top 5 most downloaded papers of 2006 in the leading organic chemistry journal Synthesis.

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Table of Contents



List of Contributors.

1. General Aspects of Organosuperbases (TsutomuIshikawa).

2. Physicochemical Properties of Organic Superbases (DavorMargetic).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Proton sponges.

2.3 Amidines.

2.4 Guanidines.

2.5 Phosphazenes.

2.6 Guanidinophosphazenes.

2.7 Other Phosphorus Containing Superbases: Verkade’sProazaphosphatranes.

2.8 Theoretical Methods.

2.9 Concluding Remarks.


3. Amidines in Organic Synthesis (Tsutomu Ishikawa and TakuyaKumamoto).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Preparation of Amidine.

3.3 Application of Amidines to Organic Synthesis.

3.4 Amidinium Salt: Design and Synthesis.

3.5 Concluding Remarks.


4. Guanidines in Organic Synthesis (TsutomuIshikawa).

4.1. Introduction.

4.2. Preparation of Chiral Guanidines.

4.3 Guanidines as Synthetic Tools.

4.4 Guanidinium Salt.

4.5 Concluding Remarks.


5. Phosphazene: Preparation, Reaction and Catalytic Role(Yoshinori Kondo).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Deprotonative Transformations Using StoichiometricPhosphazenes.

5.3 Transformation Using Phosphazene Catalyst.

5.4 Proazaphosphatrane Base (Verkade’s Base).

5.5 Concluding Remarks.


6. Polymer-supported Organosuperbases (HiyoshizoKotsuki).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Acylation reactions.

6.3 Alkylation Reactions.

6.4 Heterocyclization.

6.5 Miscellaneous.

6.6 Concluding Remarks.


7. Application of Organosuperbases to Total Synthesis (KazuoNagasawa).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions.

7.3 Deprotection.

7.4 Elimination.

7.5 Ether synthesis.

7.6 Heteroatom conjugate addition.

7.7 Isomerization.

7.8 Concluding Remarks.


8. Related Organocatalysts (1): Proton Sponge (KazuoNagasawa).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Alkylation and Hetero Michael reaction.

8.3 Amide formation.

8.4 Carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction.

8.5 Palladium-catalyzed reaction.

8.6 Concluding Remarks.


9. Related Organocatalysts (2): Urea Derivatives (WakaNakanishi).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Bisphenol as Organoacid Catalyst.

9.3 Urea and Thiourea as Achiral Catalysts.

9.4 Urea and Thiourea as Chiral Catalyst.

9.5 Concluding Remarks.


10. Amidines and Guanidines in Natural Products and Medicines(Takuya Kumamoto).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Natural Amidine Derivatives.

10.3 Natural Guanidine Derivatives.

10.4 Medicinal Amidine and Guanidine Derivatives.


11. Perspective (Tsutomu Ishikawa and DavorMargetic).

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