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SAGE Publications
Supreme Court Decisions and Women's Rights / Edition 1

Supreme Court Decisions and Women's Rights / Edition 1

by Clare Cushman


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Supreme Court Decisions and Women's Rights / Edition 1

Since the publication of the first edition of Supreme Court Decisions and Women’s Rights in 2000, there have been significant developments both in the make up of the Court and the rulings it has issued. The past decade saw the departure of highly revered Justice Sandra Day O’Connor and the historic appointment of the first Latina woman, Justice Sonia Sotomayor. Over that same time period, there have been several important decisions affecting gender law, including:

Gonzales v. Carhart
(2007), which upheld the federal ban on partial-birth abortion signed by President Bush in 2003.

Ledbetter v. Goodyear Rubber & Tire Co. (2007) found that too much time had lapsed for former-Goodyear employee Lilly Ledbetter to seek back wages for the years she received discriminatory lower pay.

AT&T Corp. v. Hulteen
(2009) held that companies that discriminated against pregnant women employees prior to passage of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, could carry that discrimination over into calculating pension pay.

Featuring more than 100 cases and updated biographies, Supreme Court Decisions and Women’s Rights provides a complete study of all the important issues and movements involving the Supreme Court and the role it plays in shaping women’s rights.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781568026145
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 09/01/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 320
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.67(d)

About the Author

Clare Cushman is director of publications for the Supreme Court Historical Society, a private nonprofit organization dedicated to the collection and preservation of the history of the Supreme Court of the United States. The Society accomplishes its mission by conducting educational programs of interest to legal practitioners, scholars, and the general public by supporting historical research; by publishing books, journals,
and electronic materials; and by collecting antiques and artifacts related to the Court’s history.

Table of Contents

IRomantic Paternalism1
Early Exclusion2
Barred from Being Lawyers2
Bradwell v. Illinois (1873)
The Right to Practice a Trade4
Slaughter-House Cases (1873)
Denied: The Right to Vote7
Minor v. Happersett (1875)
Myra Bradwell (1831-1894): Editor, Publisher, Reformer8
Susan B. Anthony on Trial12
The Nineteenth Amendment14
Protecting Women's Health and Morals16
The Nature of Women's Work16
The Ten-Hour Working Day17
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
Minimum Wage Laws19
Adkins v. Children's Hospital of D.C. (1923)
West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937)
Ending Protective Legislation for Women21
No Place for a Lady: Women Bartenders21
Goesaert v. Cleary (1948)
Florence Kelley: Crusader for Reform22
George Sutherland: Supporter of Women's Suffrage23
2Jury Duty27
Women as "The Center of Home and Family Life"27
Strauder v. West Virginia (1880)
Hoyt v. Florida (1961)
"A Fair Cross Section of the Community"29
Taylor v. Louisiana (1975)
Ballard v. United States (1946)
Gwendolyn Hoyt: A Neglected Wife Strikes Back30
Duren v. Missouri (1979)
Picking A Jury35
J.E.B. v. Alabama ex rel. T.B. (1994)
3Sex Discrimination: the Search for A Standard37
Interpreting the Equal Protection Clause37
Four Turning Points39
Breaking New Ground39
Read v. Reed (1971)
Sally Reed: A Mother Grieves for Her Son40
A Double Standard for Benefits42
Frontiero v. Richardson (1973)
Sharron Frontiero: The Patient after Whom the Disease Was Named44
Justice for Beer Drinkers47
Craig v. Boren (1976)
Mark Walker, Curtis Craig, and Carolyn Whitener: Two Fraternity Brothers and a Beer Vendor52
The Most Recent Standard55
United States v. Virginia (1996)
Ruth Bader Ginsburg as Litigator: Shaping the Law62
4Women in the Family: From Subordinates to Equal Partners68
Unequal Benefits for Widows Versus Widowers68
Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld (1975)
Califano v. Goldfarb (1977)
Wengler v. Druggists Mut. Ins. Co. (1980)
Stephen Wiesenfeld: A Father Sues for the Right to Stay Home72
Compensating Women for Past Discrimination75
Kahn v. Shevin (1974)
Califano v. Webster (1977)
Harmful Stereotypes78
Age of Majority: Twenty-one for Boys, Eighteen for Girls78
Stanton v. Stanton (1975)
Alimony for Men, Too79
Orr v. Orr (1979)
Unemployed Fathers, Unemployed Mothers81
Califano v. Westcott (1979)
Husband as "Head and Master" of Household82
Kirchberg v. Feenstra (1981)
The Equal Rights Amendment83
5Single-Sex Schools86
A Nursing School for Women Only87
Mississippi Univ. for Women v. Hogan (1982)
Joe Hogan: Male Nurse90
Women as Citizen-Soldiers93
United States v. Virginia (1996)
Gender Equity in Education: Title IX of the Education Act Amendments of 197296
6Different Treatment of Men and Women98
Women and the Armed Forces98
Combat Ships and Sea Duty99
Schlesinger v. Ballard (1975)
Registering Women for the Draft100
Rostker v. Goldberg (1981)
Giving Veterans Job Preferences103
Personnel Administrator of Mass. v. Feeney (1979)
Helen B. Feeney: A Veteran Fighter106
Unwed Fathers and Their Children108
Child Custody108
Stanley v. Illinois (1972)
The Right to Veto an Adoption and to Sue for Wrongful Death109
Caban v. Mohammed (1979)
Parham v. Hughes (1979)
Lehr v. Robertson (1983)
Children Born Outside the United States111
Lorelyn Penero Miller v. Madeleine K. Albright (1998)
Teenage Sex113
Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma Cty. (1981)
7Discrimination in the Workplace117
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964: Legislating Equality in the Workplace119
Getting Hired121
Mothers with Pre-school Age Children121
Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corp. (1971)
Height and Weight Requirements123
Dothard v. Rawlinson (1977)
Dianne Kimberly Rawlinson: A Petite Prison Guard124
Making Partner128
Hishon v. King & Spalding (1984)
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989)
Ann Hopkins: Neither Woman Nor Man Enough to Make Partner130
Affirmative Action134
Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara Cty. (1987)
Paul Johnson: Victim of Affirmative Action138
The Equal Pay Act of 1963: A Remedy for Women140
Pay and Benefits143
Working on the Night Shift143
Corning Glass Works v. Brennan (1974)
Equal Pay for Comparable Worth145
County of Washington v. Gunther (1981)
Discrimination in Fringe Benefits147
Los Angeles Department of Water and Power v. Manhart (1978)
Arizona Governing Committee v. Norris (1983)
8Sexual Harassment152
Sexual Harassment on the Job152
Meritor Savings Bank, FSB v. Vinson (1986)
Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc. (1993)
Sexual Harassment Gains National Attention156
Same-Sex Harassment156
Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc. (1998)
Unfulfilled Threats158
Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth (1998)
Faragher v. City of Boca Raton (1998)
Sexual Harassment in Schools160
Teachers Harassing Students160
Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992)
Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School Dist. (1998)
Students Harassing Other Students162
Davis v. Monroe County School Bd. of Ed. (1999)
9Pregnancy and Childbirth164
Should Pregnant Teachers Teach?165
Cleveland Bd. of Ed. v. LaFleur (1974)
Pregnancy is Not a Disability168
Geduldig v. Aiello (1974)
General Elec. Co. v. Gilbert (1976)
Having A Baby, Losing Seniority172
Nashville Gas Co. v. Satty (1977)
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978173
Discriminating Against Men: Coverage of Workers' Wives174
Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. v. EEOC (1983)
Special Versus Equal Treatment for Pregnant Workers176
California Fed. Sav. & Loan Assn. v. Guerra (1987)
Fertile Women Need Not Apply178
Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls, Inc. (1991)
Capt. Susan Struck: The Case That Got Away180
Family Leave181
The Right to Privacy182
The Battle for Birth Control182
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972)
Estelle Griswold: Challenging the Ban on Birth Control186
Abortion Reform Laws188
The First Decision: Roe v. Wade189
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Doe v. Bolton (1973)
Roe: The Aftermath190
Abortion Funding191
Maher v. Roe (1977)
Harris v. McRae (1980)
Rust v. Sullivan (1991)
Consent of Husband, Parents193
Planned Parenthood Assn. of Central Mo. v. Danforth (1976)
Bellotti v. Baird (1979)
Planned Parenthood Assn. of Kansas City, Mo., Inc. v. Ashcroft (1983)
Hodgson v. Minnesota (1990)
Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health, Inc. (1990)
Dr. Jane E. Hodgson: Abortion Pioneer195
Abortion Procedure196
City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health (1983)
Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (1986)
Reconsidering Roe197
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
Casey: Reaffirming Roe198
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992)
Stenberg v. Carhart (2000)
Alias Jane Roe: The Story of Norma Nelson McCorvey202
Antiabortion Demonstrations at Clinics204
11Leading the Way207
Women Bar Members and Advocates207
Belva A. Lockwood: First Woman Member of the Supreme Court Bar and First Woman to Argue Before the Court207
First Ladies of the Supreme Court208
The First Women Members of the Supreme Court Bar, 1879-1900216
Susan Brandeis: A Justice's Daughter Argues Before His Court234
The First Female Law Clerks235
Lucile Lomen: First Woman Law Clerk235
The First Female Law Clerks236
Near Misses: Women Considered for Appointment to the Supreme Court243
Women on the Supreme Court247
Sandra Day O'Connor: First Woman Justice247
Ruth Bader Ginsburg: From Litigator to Justice252
Illustration credits297

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