Surfactants from Renewable Resources / Edition 1 available in Hardcover
- Pub. Date:
Most modern surfactants are readily biodegradable and exhibit lowtoxicity in the aquatic environment, the two criteria for greensurfactants. However the majority are synthesised from petroleum,so over the past decade the detergent industry has turned itsattention to developing greener routes to create these surfactantsvia renewable building blocks.
Surfactants from Renewable Resources presents the latestresearch and commercial applications in the emerging field ofsustainable surfactant chemistry, with emphasis on productiontechnology, surface chemical properties, biodegradability,ecotoxicity, market trends, economic viability and life-cycleanalysis.
Reviewing traditional sources for renewable surfactants as wellas recent advances, this text focuses on techniques with potentialfor large scale application.
Topics covered include:
- Renewable hydrophobes from natural fatty acids and forestindustry by-products
- Renewable hydrophiles from carbohydrates, amino acids andlactic acid
- New ways of making renewable building blocks; ethylene fromrenewable resources and complex mixtures from waste biomass
- Surface active polymers
About the Author
Dr Mikael Kjellin is based at the Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm, Sweden, which works with many industrial branches including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, biotech, food, industrial chemicals, household products, engineering and materials industries, pulp and paper, coatings, adhesives, paints, and printing.In addition, Dr Kjellin is the coordinator of the research centre SNAP, which aims to build from an industrial need, long-term knowledge and experience relating to new environmentally safe surfactants derived entirely or partly from natural products.
Ingegard.Johansson is a research scientists based at Akzo Nobel Surfactants Europe in Sweden.
Table of Contents
List of Contributors.
PART 1 RENEWABLE HYDROPHOBES.
1 Surfactants Based on Natural Fatty Acids (MartinSvensson).
1.1 Introduction and History.
1.2 Fats and Oils as Raw Materials.
1.3 Fatty Acid Soaps.
1.4 Polyethylene Glycol Fatty Acid Esters.
1.5 Polyglycerol Fatty Acid Esters.
2 Nitrogen Derivatives of Natural Fats and Oils (RalphFranklin).
2.2 Manufacture of Fatty Nitrogen Derivatives.
2.3 Production Data.
2.4 Ecological Aspects.
2.6 Properties of Nitrogen-Based Surfactants.
3 Surface-Active Compounds as Forest-Industry By-Products(Bjarne Holmbom, Anna Sundberg and Anders Strand).
3.2 Resin and Fatty Acids.
3.3 Sterols and Sterol Ethoxylates.
PART 2 REWNEWABLE HYDROPHILES.
4 Surfactants Based on Carbohydrates and Proteins forConsumer Products and Technical Applications (KarlheinzHill).
4.2 Raw Materials.
4.3 Products and Applications.
5 Amino Acids, Lactic Acid and Ascorbic Acid as Raw Materialsfor Biocompatible Surfactants (Carmen Moran, Lourdes Perez,Ramon Pons, Aurora Pinazo and Maria Rosa Infante).
5.2 Production of Raw Materials.
5.3 Lysine-Based Surfactants.
5.4 Lactic Acid-Based Surfactants.
5.5 Ascorbic Acid-Based Surfactants.
PART 3 NEW WAYS OF MAKING RENEWABLE BUILDING BLOCKS.
6 Ethylene from Renewable Resources (Anna Lundgren andThomas Hjertberg).
6.2 Why Produce Ethylene from Renewable Resources?
6.3 Production of Ethylene from Renewable Feedstock.
6.4 Commercialization of Bioethylene.
6.5 Environmental Impact of Bioethylene.
6.6 Certificate of Green Carbon Content.
6.7 Concluding Remarks.
7 Fermentation-Based Building Blocks for RenewableResource-Based Surfactants (Kris Arvid Berglund, UlrikaRova, David B Hodge).
7.2 Existing and Potential Classes of Surfactants fromBiologically-Derived Metabolites.
7.3 Fermentation-Based Building Blocks with Large ExistingMarkets.
7.4 New Fermentation-Based Building Blocks.
PART 4 BIOSURFACTANTS.
8 Synthesis of Surfactants Using Enzymes (PatrickAdlercreutz and Rajni Hatti-Kaul).
8.2 Enzymes as Catalysts for Synthesis of Surfactants.
8.3 Enzymatic Synthesis of Polar Lipids Useful asSurfactants.
8.4 Carbohydrate Esters.
8.5 Fatty Amide Surfactants.
8.6 Amino Acid-Based Surfactants.
8.7 Alkyl Glycosides.
8.8 Future Prospects.
9 Surfactants from Waste Biomass (Flor YunuenGarcía-Becerra, David Grant Allen, and Edgar JoelAcosta).
9.2 Surfactants Obtained from Biological Transformation of WasteBiomass.
9.3 Surfactants Obtained from Chemical Transformation of WasteBiomass.
9.4 Summary and Outlook.
10 Lecithin and Other Phospholipids (Willem vanNieuwenhuyzen).
10.2 Sources and Production.
10.4 Quality and Analysis of Lecithins.
10.6 Emulsifying Properties.
10.8 Legislation and Reach.
11 Sophorolipids and Rhamnolipids (Dirk W. G. Develterand Steve J. J. Fleurackers).
11.2 Derivatives of Native Sophorolipids.
11.3 Biosynthesis of Novel Sophorolipids.
11.5 Cleaning Applications Using Sophorolipids andRhamnolipids.
12 Saponin-Based Surfactants (Wieslaw Oleszek andArafa Hamed).
12.2 Molecular Properties.
12.3 Sources of Saponins.
12.4 Saponins as Emulsifiers and Surfactants.
12.5 Application of Saponins as Surfactants and Emulsifiers.
PART 5 POLYMERIC SURFACTANTS/SURFACE-ACTIVE POLYMERS
13 Surface-Active Polymers from Cellulose (LeifKarlson).
13.2 Structure and Synthesis of Cellulose Ether.
13.3 Cellulose Ethers in Aqueous Solution.
13.4 Interaction with Surfactants.
14 New Developments in the Commercial Utilization ofLignosulfonates (Rolf Andreas Lauten, Bernt O. Myrvold andStig Are Gundersen).
14.3 Lignosulfonate Production.
14.4 Environmental Issues.
14.5 Lignosulfonates as Stabilizers for Emulsions andSuspoemulsions.
14.6 Superplasticizers for Concrete.
15 Dispersion Stabilizers Based on Inulin (TharwatTadros and Bart Levecke).
15.2 Solution Properties of Long-Chain Inulin andHydrophobically Modified Inulin (HMI).
15.3 Interfacial Aspects of HMI at Various Interfaces.
15.4 Emulsions Stabilized Using HMI.
15.5 Emulsion Polymerization Using HMI.
15.6 Use of HMI for Preparation and Stabilization ofNanoemulsions.
What People are Saying About This
"The book is highly concentrated on technical aspects with big expertise in the different production technologies, it aims to be used as a chemical and technical reference for industrial and academic researchers in this field." (Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology, 30 August 2011)