This comprehensive history of the role of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe, and their continued presence on the continent, provides a fascinating overview of one of the Cold War's most important facets. The preface states:
the history of the Cold War is a nuclear history, centered around each side's efforts to convince the other of a readiness for a war that neither wanted. Tactical nuclear weapons were crucial to this effort, because they were the link between conventional war in Europe and a central nuclear exchange between the superpowers. The Soviets were unlikely to believe that the President would risk New York and Chicago for the people of Europe, which was the central premise of the short-lived and poorly conceived strategy of "Massive Retaliation." A threat to leap to Armageddon because of a scuffle between the Soviets and the West Germans was on its face incredible, to Moscow as much as to us. Tactical nuclear weapons provided the solution. The West abandoned any hope of matching Warsaw Pact conventional forces man for man or tank for tank, and instead placed nuclear weapons in Europe, many of them directly in front of the assumed axes of Soviet advance where they would assuredly be overrun or employed. This warned the Soviets, in effect, that if Europe were invaded, the choice to use nuclear arms would be forced upon NATO by the successes of the Red Army. Western commanders, faced with imminent defeat, would fire their tactical arms in desperation at advancing Soviet units. This was a terrifying but effective strategy. As we now know, the Soviet High Command wrestled with this dilemma, since taking a Europe in ashes defeated the whole point of invasion in the first place. All of the options led to the same dead end of escalation, strategic retaliation, and catastrophe. Combat along the Central Front probably would have decayed into a nuclear war sooner rather than later, with unimaginable consequences. Today, the Central Front is gone.
Tactical Nuclear Weapons and NATO: An Introductory Reminiscence * PART I. THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF TACTICAL NUCLEAR WEAPONS * 1. The Historical Context * 2. Tactical Nuclear Weapons in NATO and Beyond: A Historical and Thematic Examination * 3. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy and Policymaking: The Asian Experience * PART II. RUSSIAN PERSPECTIVES ON TACTICAL NUCLEAR WEAPONS * 4. Russian Perspectives on Tactical Nuclear Weapons * 5. Russian Doctrine on Tactical Nuclear Weapons: Contexts, Prisms, and Connections * 6. Aspects of the Current Russian Perspective on Tactical Nuclear Weapons * 7. Influences on Russian Policy and Possibilities for Reduction in Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons * 8. Russian Perspectives on Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons * 9. Introduction of European Policies and Opinions Relating to Tactical Nuclear Weapons * 10. The Role and Place of Tactical Nuclear Weapons — A NATO Perspective * 11. European and German Perspectives * 12. European Perspectives * 13. Europe, NATO's Tactical Nuclear Conundrum, and Public Debate: Be Careful What You Wish For * PART IV. AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES * 14. American Perspectives on Tactical Nuclear Weapons * 15. Role of Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons: An American Perspective * 16. NATO's Nuclear Debate: The Broader Strategic Context * 17. Role of Nuclear Weapons in NATO's Deterrence and Defense Posture Review: Prospects for Change * PART V. ARMS CONTROL AS AN OPTION * 18. Tactical Nuclear Weapons and NATO: Arms Control as an Option * 19. Arms Control Options for Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons * 20. Tactical Nuclear Weapons and NATO: A Conventional Arms Control Perspective * 21. Arms Control after START * 22. The Conventional and Nuclear Nexus in Europe * PART VI. CONCLUSION * 23. Summing Up and Issues for the Future
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The official story hub of Haunted &ni<_>mmortal. <p> Stories and their reses should be updated periodically. <p> ~ H&ni
Name~Golden/paw <p> Age~6 moons exact <p> Appearance~Long tailed golden furred she-cat with dark brown tabby stripes and deep blue eyes <p> Does~Saves Thornpaw and Wingpaw from death and the leader invites her to join the clan and Wingpaw starts to like her more than Thornpaw developing a crush for Goldenpaw. <p> Btw's awesome story! Read mine at mjy res 1-3 ming a new one out todays
For some reason, the whole last chapter vanished. And I forgot to label it chapter 2! Hope you like this chapter! And I really like comments, and a few applications! I don't have many cats!)) <p> "Wingpaw! Thornpaw! Wingpaw! Thornpaw!" The cats chanted and Thornpaw was bur<_>sting with pri<_>de, while Lightkit was looking on with jelo<_>usy. She ignored Lighkit, even though she was a nice cat, this was Wingpaw's & Thornpaw's time. Wingpaw was bouncing on his feet. While she was looking for her mentor, Rippleshine, Flametail, Wingpaw's mentor, padded up. "Wingpaw, we will take a tour of the territory. Thornpaw, Rippleshine is coming." Wingpaw spung in the air, trying to catch a falling leaf. "Great! When can I start ba<_>ttle training?" He said enth<_>usia<_>sticly, digging his claws into the ground. Rippleshine walked up and glanced at him ste<_>rnly. "Wingpaw, its leaf-fall. Save your energy!" She sna<_>pped. When Wingpaw looked downcast, Thornpaw flicked him on the shoulder with her tail. "Come on, we don't want to be left behind. Just focus on learning the territory." She sprinted to catch up to Rippleshine, who was already at the entrance into the forest. Wingpaw lingered a bit, when Lighkit walked past with a vole, he guessed it was for the elders, he waved his tail in greeting and she waved back. Then he sprinted after Thornpaw and their mentors. <p> Once Wingpaw caught up, Thornpaw fell behind and whispered into his ear. "Where have you been? Flametail is lecturing me while Rippleshine is looking at a boring pile of rocks." She purred, amused. Then Rippleshine swung her head around. "Boring? These are the Crystal Stones. They shimmer in the sunshine, and glow in the moonlight!" She purred, pading along a path that had been worn down by many paw-prints. Flametail kept sniffing the air, then, with ears pri<_>cked, her halted and ba<_>r<_>red the way with his tail. "I smell..." Then Rippleshine, glancing behind them, screeched, "Fox! Thornpaw, Wingpaw! Go back to camp!" Then suddenly, they were surrounded by two more. "Too late..." Thornpaw gulped and Wingpaw pressed against her. Flametail and Rippleshine formed a protective circle around the apprentices. "Up the tree..." She hissed, nudging them to a low-growing oak. Wingpaw pushed Thornpaw up first and she grabbed a branch. She turned around to help Wingpaw, but he was being dra<_>gged to the ground by a fox, its teeth in his back leg. This fox was the alpha male, and he was big. Flametail was fi<_>ghting one, while Rippleshine was fi<_>ghting the third. Thornpaw screeched a ba<_>ttle cry & leaped down onto the foxes back. The fox let go of Wingpaw & sm<_>ashed her onto a tree. She fell with a th<_>ud to the ground. <br> The last thing she saw was Wingpaw, ble<_>eding and eyes wide, staring at her while the fox lun<_>dged again. Her vision went dark. <p> ((Hope you liked it! Next chapter tomorrow! ~ Steeil