Smog was discovered in L.A. in the 1950s, and scientists showed that the city's burgeoning car population was the cause. Thus began almost 50 years of bobbing and weaving by the Big Three auto makers General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler to avoid responsibility. As the U.S. government became involved in auto regulation, the Big Three countered with threats, intimidation, and subterfuge. Catalytic converters, alternative fuels, and emissions standards all came about long after they could have as a result of this tug of war. In Taken for a Ride, Jack Doyle documents a sordid tale of delay, missed opportunities, and serious environmental culpability.